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A basic view of the aims and system of the yogi/yoga milieu and a brief history of the spread of the greater yogi lineage via the pilgrimage/propitiation circuits and the pitha-s, the 'seats' of the deities, during the 1st millennium AD.

Article Submitted By: GeorgeFarrow
Date: Sun, 13 Nov 2011 Time: 4:34 AM

A basic view of the aims and system of the yogi/yoga milieu and a brief history of the spread of the greater yogi lineage via the pilgrimage/propitiation circuits and the pitha-s, the 'seats' of the deities, during the 1st millennium AD.

       ‘...The pı˛ha-s, Seats [of the deities]...are the dvadashabhumi, the Twelve Stages [in the attainment of the fully Enlightened Being].’

                                                                                         Hevajra Tantra (H.T.,) 1.7.10-11.



(a.) A very basic but personal view on how to approach the yogi lineage milieu.

(b.,) Cause and effect. 

(c.,) The innate birthright of humanity.                                                                              

 (d.,) Bhaava, sensibility. 

 (e.) Seeking a master.                                                                                                                 

(f.) My personal ignorance of the various Indian systems of emanation and yoga leading to protracted study and then to translation projects. 

(g.,) A brief view on the historical situation at the beginning of the 1st., millennium AD., leading to the emergence of the classic tantric yoga and orthodox yoga lineage traditions initially arising within the hill kingdoms of the northwestern region of the Indian sub-continent.                                                                                                                 

(h.) The deha-vada, the Doctrine of the refined, divine Body that is common within all sectarian yoga and tantric yoga traditions. 

 (i.,) A brief review of the classic yoga system.                                                                       

(j.) The pitha-s, 'seats' etc., of the 'five' regions of classical India during the 1st.,  millennium AD, as listed in two Buddhist Mantrayana tantra-s .


           (a.) A very basic but personal view on how to approach the yogi lineage milieu.

            '...[Generally humanity inwardly see] with the eyes of the mind affected with the cataract of ignorance...'.

              The Great Adept Krishna-acarya's yoga-ratna-mala commenting on H.T.1.5.

            The various Eurasian ascetic exoteric/esoteric/cosmic lineage streams of 'applied' religion include the extant atheistic Buddhist tradition, the theistic Hindu Shaiva/Shakta tradition and the Vaisnava tradition as well as the now defunct 1st.,  to 8th.,  century AD., theistic Gnostic Christian tradition etc. These ascetic traditions all upheld/uphold that the disciplined and purified body/mind, the finite 'temple', can be harnessed by the adepts of emanation and yoga as a means to efficiently realize and express the uncreated, infinite, non-dual, divine consciousness.

          Therefore the compassionate, egalitarian exoteric/esoteric religious movements, founded by the seminal adept founding masters of these traditions, are ultimately aimed or were originally aimed towards attaining the intuitive experience of the infinite ‘universal birthright' of non-dual consciousness that can be accessed by the consciousness potential of the finite body/mind.

      However the reader as well as the author should never forget that the uncreated, imminent and impersonal non-dual svabhava, the divine 'essential nature', that 'marks' all beings and all material things etc, can only be attained by the long term cultivation and earnest devotion to the purifying modes of emanation and yoga. Thereby internally aware human beings only have a slim chance to successfully fully access the radiance/resonance of the transcendental non-dual  consciousness.

      Within these atheistic and theistic traditions the innate 'one' consciousness is known either as the buddha-dharma, the Buddha Nature; as the 'eternal life' or the 'one' nature/self of particular theistic cosmic deities. The altruistic inner aim of realizing the 'one' consciousness is in direct contrast to the mainly greedy and selfish aims of the regal/monied elite who ruled and still rule the social world of humanity.

      The complete exoteric/esoteric/cosmic systems of the Buddhist, Shaiva/Shakta, Vaisnava and Gnostic lineages etc., set in motion by various founding adept masters, are/were all based upon exoteric concepts of ethical self-examination, moral self- discipline, mental and physical restraint, tolerance, respect, compassion and charity for all together with the esoteric/cosmic systems of emanation and yoga.

  These exoteric/esoteric/cosmic systems are/were capable of offering to accomplished, adept practitioners the direct realization of the non-dual consciousness or the innate knowledge of gnosis. But exploring the consciousness potential of the finite body/mind and attaining the ultimate, altruistic goal of 'applied' esoteric religion have often been seen as major doctrinal conundrums upsetting the worldly views of the elite and the relative exoteric dogmas, myths and superstitions etc., upheld by the religious hierarchies ruling various Eurasian religious streams.

    Some of the West Asian theistic traditions hold that the personal 'god' or rather even the 'devil', a fallen creation of 'god', directly determines the personal and mass cause and effect within the dualistic events of the sensory/social world. Here devotees are only offered heaven or hell as the personal cause and effect fruit of their lives. But within the various South Asian theistic traditions mentioned, the concept of 'maya', dualistic 'illusion' or lila, the relative 'divine play/game' rules or rather veils devotees from realizing the nature of the 'oneness' of consciousness.

        The South Asian devotees are similarly offered heaven and hell realms or even rebirth in animal forms as well as in the human form etc., as the cause and effect fruit of their previous lives. But in contrast to the West Asian traditions the South Asian traditions offer 'worthy' consecrated disciples, accomplished in the emanation and yoga method, the slim chance to realize the 'one' nature which transcends all forms of mental duality.

           These cultural/religious concepts of the 'personal' role of the different cultural theistic deities, deemed necessary in order to understand the limitations of the sensory/social world and personal and mass cause and effect, have, with the historic conditioning of popular religious myths, dogmas and superstitions beset and upset any clear understanding of the altruistic 'universal' aims of religion. The concept of the 'personal' god or 'personal one' deity that actual directs individual and mass human cause and effect is a cruel myth that in effect discounts any notion of human free-will and free-choice and devalues human life to a play thing or a whim of 'god' .

       In actually the transcendental 'one' nature and the actions of the 'personal' deity or the 'impersonal' cosmic 'one' deity cannot be experienced by the duality of sensory consciousness. The transcendental nature of the 'one' consciousness is beyond the limits of sensory consciousness and here in this life the divine 'one' consciousness' can only be realized by adept devotees who have fully accomplished the processes of devotion, emanation and yoga. The dualism of the relative, sensory mind flow and concepts coming from this source always stems from the inherent dualism of the differentiating mind. By clinging to the concepts, myths etc., emanating from the differentiating mind the mass of ordinary devotees have in fact be robbed of a altruistic understanding of the real, 'universal' purpose of religion.

         Devotees have been robbed by the ignorance of gross dualistic concepts, myths and dogmas etc., purporting to be 'real' altruistic concepts and aims of religion. In all humans the differentiating mind commences while the embryo is still in the mother's womb and first experiences sensory impulses, primal fears etc. Upon birth consciousness is tied to duality created by the primal veil of experiencing the dyads of enjoyment/pain, fear/ security etc., and the primal negative emotions driven on by the individual's sensory experience and reinforced the bipolar, emotional breath etc. In the esoteric/cosmic tradition the duality of sensory consciousness is 'unnatural' consciousness whereas the 'one' consciousness is the sahaja, the innate, 'natural' consciousness.

           The 'one' consciousness is not merely just a concept arising in the differentiating mind but is the unique, infinite, transcendental field of consciousness said to be always awaiting discovery by 'worthy' devotees/adepts. Here the methodology of exoteric/esoteric/cosmic religion can perhaps be successfully use by accomplished adepts to actualize the infinite 'one' consciousness within the consciousness field of the finite body/mind.

        The altruistic 'real' purpose of 'applied' religion is by way of a long, hard and difficult process of the purification of the finite body/mind from the primeval dyads and the negative emotions, primeval elements etc., of the differentiating, dualistic mind. Only then can 'worthy' devotees perhaps eventually directly realize the uncreated, infinite 'one' nature.

       But a further obstacle to clearly understanding the utility of the finite body/mind is even presented by the example of the external temple or even a 'holy land' like Israel or India. Here the external temple, church etc., can supposedly be consecrated to receive the 'spirit' of the deity and then be used as 'holy' venue for worshipping the cultural and/or the chosen deity. But actually concealed or veiled 'holiness' resides in the consciousness field of all human beings and always awaits discovery by 'worthy' devotees.

     But according to the religious traditions coming from West Asia, the inner 'temple', the finite, body/mind can never be purified to receive the ever present, infinate 'spirit' and therefore the body/mind has  been rejected by these traditions as a necessary vehicle to realize the transcendental 'one' nature/consciousness. Here the major West Asian religious traditions can only use the differentiating mind to conceptualize and make devotees believe in the existence of the 'one' deity but never offer the complete means aimed to realize the  transcendental nature of the 'one' consciousness.

        (b.,) Cause and effect.

        'Karma, cause and effect, consists of....' Hevajra Tantra 1.8.45. 

      The altruistic inner goal held by the esoteric/cosmic lineages, founded by the Buddha and the Gnostic Christ etc., presents a further doctrinal conundrum even facing the life styles of 'worthy' disciples. This further conundrum hinges on whether disciples should choose or reject living by the 'normal', conventional elitist mores that have always ruled and still rule society. So-called 'normal' elitist mores have historically conditioned the sensory/social world and these include selfish materialism and the greed for wealth, land and temporal power etc. These conditioning material and temporal aims just limit life to the duality of pleasure/pain, fear/security, enjoyment/aversion etc., etc., and give full rein to the dualistic negative emotions of greed, lust, anger and pride etc.

     Here 'worthy' but novice disciples of the esoteric/cosmic lineages must first choose or reject a more simple, relatively austere life of contemplation, centering on the bipolar, emotional breath etc., that in all likelihood only offers the slim hope of fully realizing the non-dual consciousness.

    For this reason the various doctrinal conundrums etc., surrounding aiming towards the 'one' consciousness has not been satisfactorily answered and or even preached openly by many of the major, theistic religions. This is especially the case of the religious traditions originating and emanating from West Asia which rely on 'belief' and 'faith' in 'god' and the written words of the prophets. At best the West Asian streams postulate that the world of sensory duality is simply determined or even pre-determined by a personal 'god', with the power of the 'devil', created by 'god', as the malignant spoiler within 'his good' creation.

     But the under the South Asian esoteric/cosmic lineage view, the 'one' nature is sometimes characterized as impersonal; as the non-determinator of individual and mass sensory cause and effect and that all finite creation as well as the dualistic sensory mind/consciousness are always set within this impersonal, transcendental 'one' nature or 'one' consciousness.

     The 'real' exoteric/esoteric/cosmic teachings of the accomplished seminal founders of the major Eurasian religions are that all devotees and 'worthy' disciples should 'fight against the current' of individual and mass dualistic sensory cause and effect in order to finally directly realize the 'one' consciousness. Here the 'worthy' disciple must live in a discipline manner in order to first conceive and then after a life-long task of purifying consciousness with the comprehensive method, possibly finally realize or not, the transcendental, 'one' consciousness. But nothing is guaranteed!

  In respect to an understanding of the need for the purification of the finite body/mind, absolutely necessary in order to counter the dualistic emotional conditioning of cause and effect created by living in the normal mores of the sensory/social world, the 16th ., century AD., Mugal Emperor, Akbar the Great, had a very helpful and profound inscription placed on the main gateway of his capital Fatepur  Sikri that reads:

        Isa (Jesus), son of Mary said:

        “The world is a Bridge, pass over it, but build no houses upon it.

       “He who hopes for a day, may hope for eternity.

      “ But the World [in reality only] endures but an hour.

      “Spend it [your time in the world] in prayer...”

       However unlike Jesus' words from the Koran and recorded in Akbar the Great's inscription, the mores of the political systems founded by the regal elite and their allies the nobility are not and never have been in tune with the exoteric/esoteric/cosmic aims of the lineages of accomplished adepts. The historic political systems founded by the regal/monied elite have only really benefited the worldly aims and selfish goals of the human elite.

      Historically the political systems forwarding elistist mores are in actuality the antithesis of the egalitarian and compassionate social aims of the seminal, founding masters of the major religions of Eurasia. This is still the same today despite the introduction of the more egalitarian and wider policial system of democracy over the past three hundred years. The mores and political systems controlled by the elite have historically forced, diverted and confused devotees from striving towards the common 'birth right' of humanity, the innate, non-dual goal postulated by the various 'applied' exoteric/esoteric lineages of Eurasia.

       Over the past three thousand years and up till quite recently, the elite families of the regions of Europe, Persia, India and China etc., created regal dynasties, united kingdoms and even went on to found and created empires etc. But at various times these Eurasian dynasties were headed by some exceptional, highly intelligent even gifted, humane leaders who were bold, worldly-wise, energetic and inquisitive. Here these exceptional, humane regal leaders included 6th., century BC., compassionate Achaemenid emperor, Cyrus the Great, recognised by the Jewish religion as a prophet; the 3rd., century BC., Buddhist emperor Asoka Maurya and the later 7th., century AD., Buddhist emperor Harsha Vadana as well as the 16th., AD., Muslim Mugal emperor Akbar who was very interested in the 'universal truth' held by all the religions of India and Eurasia etc.

        But for the most part the historical cause and effect of the ancient and classical kingdoms etc., was created by these seminal or other dynastic leaders from their waging civil war within their own family or between other noble families while always continuing to exercise ruthless oppression on the majority of the population. Here seminal dynastic leaders also waged aggressive war with rival monarchs leading to the colonization of other rival kingdoms or at other times the regal elite waged war on independant tribes annexing their tribal lands etc.

       At first the mass of the population was in general mainly comprised of slaves and agricultural serfs together with the laboring, artisan and mercantile classes of the villages, towns and cities. Generally, historical rule by the minority elite was not performed for the benefit or for the good of all members of society but was in reality based on a hypocritical and arrogant system of elitist self-interest and for the minority's personal pleasure. This grossly unfair system was founded on the pain, the suffering and the privation of others by way of an onerous, unfair tax system; by state and religious violence back up with class oppression, serfdom, slavery and by war.  

        Without any doubt the Buddha and the Christ, the founding masters of major South and West Asian religious traditions, appreciated the selfishness and the base motives driving the ruling regal elite. The regal elite who with the nobility, held the land, all production, gained all taxes and the accrued wealth of a given kingdom went on to ruthlessly exercised ‘real’ political power within their particular home societies.  Here the Buddha leaves us in no doubt as to his opinion of the base motivation for the strategies and actions of the elite and their consequent effect upon ordinary individuals within classical Indian society.

        In this respect the Buddha timelessly states:

        " I behold the rich in this world, [and] the goods which they have acquired, [which] in their [greed driven] folly they share nothing [in charity] with others. They eagerly heap riches together and further and even still further they go [to any lengths] in the pursuit of their pleasure.

        " The king, although he may have conquered the kingdoms of the earth, although he may be the ruler of all the land...[up to] the sea...would still be insatiate [and thereby] covet that [land] which is beyond the sea.    

       " The princes who rule kingdoms, rich in treasures and wealth, turn their greed against one another pandering insatiably to their desires. If these [kings] act thus [while] swimming in the stream of impermanence, carried along by greed and carnal desire, who then can walk on earth in peace." 

       As a general rule, within these kingdoms, empires and even in later in wider democratic political situations etc., the elite dynasties, their allies the nobility, plus later the monied elite as well as the religious hierarchies directing the various 'state religions', have always sought with the threats of state or religious violence, threats of sin and hell to condition cow and divide the mass of the population in order to fully exploit their labors for the elite's benefit.

           But here the canda-maha-rosana-tantra 8.27 states:  

        “ He [the accomplished yogi] should have no fear of sin and the difficult ways of hell etc.

        “As long as he has fear of [the religious/social concepts active within] the world he [the novice] will not gain [inner] power [by prolonged yogic concentration on the bipolar breath etc.].”

       Here the padma-avati commentary further states:

        ' (Should have no fear etc.): With ‘should have no fear’ etc. the novice [yogı] is being instructed [in regard to the nature of fear and the manner of cultivating fearlessness]. From not being capable [of avoiding] a king’s [arbitrary] regime they [the king’s subjects] are [from their criminal or even their innocent actions] tormented, executed and imprisoned etc.

     ' [Further from] fearing that hell and demerit are likely to occur [beings] from fear do not perform acts of theft etc., and [thereby from this fear beings act in] accord with the [conventions of] the worldly [religious/social] view. However, even [while living within a society governed by worldly conventions adept yogı-s] do not have fear of sin or hell etc., or [even live] fearing that hell and demerit are likely to occur.

      'For one who is [adept in] practicing yoga there is no sin etc. [However] for those who are not [successfully] practicing yoga there is [indeed] fear of great sin. So novice yogi-s [not possessing knowledge of the Innate] should [certainly] have fear [of being conditioned by worldly beings and the orthodox view of exoteric religion] ...'.

        Historic colonial empires and even today's the monied elite etc., have always maintained long-term alliances with the hierarchies of the various 'state religions'. Here the hierarchies of the West Asian religions only offer and teach the limited orthodox dogmas, myths etc., of exoteric religion. This long term alliance has also created a conditioning, racist/cultural dialogue mounted against any perceived 'enemy', external and internal, as well as against the so-called 'natives' of the conquered tribal lands etc., taken by way of colonial wars. For example the era of the European colonization in Asia and the Americas commenced in 1492 AD., with Columbus discovering the 'new' world.  

      The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed at Tordesillas, Spain in 7th., June 1494, divided the newly discovered lands of the Americas and Asia between the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal. This division was along the meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands off the west coast of Africa. A few decades later the tribal lands of the south and central America etc., as well as the Asian kingdoms and empires were arrogantly assigned to the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal by the Treaty of Zaragoza or Saragossa, signed on 22 April 1529. This treaty further detailed the actual line of demarcation as previously roughly specified the Treaty of Tordesillas.

       The Treaty of Zaragoza was signed to end the war fought between kingdoms of Spain and Portugal over the 'Moluccus issue' or the right to the monopoly trade within the Spice Islands, the modern Indonesia. This treaty stipulated that the victorious Portuguese had the sphere of influence comprising Asia, including India, Ceylon, the Spice Islands, Japan and China barring the Philippines. Whereas the Spanish were given the sphere of influence in south and central America but barring Portuguese Brazil. A little later, the Pope arrogantly and self-righteously gave authority to the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal to conquer, despoil and exploit any and all non-Catholic nations throughout the world in order to spread the Catholic version of 'true' religion.

       Historically the point of the basic racist/cultural/religious dialogue, has in effect left the past European colonial empires as well as today's western neo-colonialists etc., with a lasting sense of cultural and racial superiority that now gives the western elite the 'moral right' to 'change regimes'; to wage 'privatized' war for the western geo-political sphere of influence as well as wage war simply for western elite's benefit and profit. But historically from this dialogue the use of the extreme outer trend of western theistic religion has served to further debase the compassionate aims and ultimate goal of the Christ and has further veiled even robbed 'worthy' devotees of the 'universal' exoteric/esoteric/cosmic aim of disciplining and purifying the finite body/mind towards realizing innate gnosis.

        But the basis of the modern version of the racist/cultural/religious dialogue was instituted and cemented so that the western colonialist and neo-colonialist nations have a sense of so-called superiority over 'weaker', uncivilized non-European and non-Christian civilizations, cultures and religions. This racist/cultural/religious dialogue still conditions the public in western nations and especially the US., public with an attitude of their clear cultural/religious 'superiority' over the non-white world. As in the past cultural/religious modern warfare is a tool used for the expansion of the western geo-political sphere of influence and today the aggressive never ending 'war on terror', created by the 9/11 terror event, is fully sanctioned by western patriots, nationalists, right-wingers, neo- conservatives and even neo-liberals etc.

    Apart from the geo-political implications and profit implications to the industrial/military/security complex, the 'war on terror' also acts as a supposed bulkhead to protect the 'true' Judeo-Christian religion as well as to protect western civilization and culture. This chauvinistic position was created by the western corporate media by way of conditioning the western public with fear and the need of more security in their lives. Also the extreme followers of Christian fundamentalist religion are deluded to think that violent modern warfare including a further general war with the Muslims and even in the future a nuclear war with Iran etc., will bring about the 'end of days' and the second coming of Jesus !

        As with today's followers of fundamental Islam, the followers of the nationalist brands of fundamental Judeo-Christian religion have completely lost any idea of the egalitarian, compassionate altruistic aims of religion and the 'one' universal goal of the seminal founders of the religions from Eurasia. Thereby even in the modern era of wider education and direct knowledge about other cultures, religions etc., the insulated right-wing nationalists and extreme religious fundamentalists etc., use the name of religion to make war on other nations and cultures. These wars are made in order that the 'god protected' US., and NATO., can freely and ruthlessly conquer and exploit their land, resources and wealth.

       Here violent modern war leads to the consequent destruction of a given nation's infrastructure as well leading to horrifying civilian deaths and general displacement and suffering of civilians especially childen etc. All because violent modern war is supposed to advance the superiority of western culture; help western security; advance western geo-political influence and even support 'god send' elistist capitalism. According to US., patriots, war has become a so-called act of devotion offered to the Judeo-Christian 'god'. Such misguided, malefic relative doctrines and concepts come from belief in the 'real truth' of the illusions arising within the dualistic sensory/social world as well as the absolute reality of individual and mass sensory, dualistic cause and effect.

       These utterly misguided relative doctrines and concepts etc., are always historically favored by some sectors within 'state religion' above the altruistic goal of founding adept masters of the major Eurasian religions that humanity can and should realize their 'divine birthright' .

        Here the Buddhist Mantrayana treatise the hevajra-tantra points out in 1.8.45 that:

       'Karma, cause and effect, consists of .... direct personal experience and karma arises from perception....'.

       The YRM., commentary clarifies this statement with:

      ' (Consists of .... direct personal experience): Karma is all that is observed as the variety of things, stationary, moving etc., which arise from the maturing of the actions of living beings. Here, if Karma arises from the direct personal experience then how is there mahamudra siddhi, the Accomplishment of the Great Seal [or the realization of the sahaja, the natural innate 'one' consciousness]?

     ' In reference to this it is said:  (From perception): Here, perception refers to ascertaining in terms of the duality of subject and object. It is from this duality that karma, cause and effect is created but karma, [dualistic] cause and effect does not arise from the Innate 'one' essence of the universe.' 

      Further the Christ offers within Matthew 19.23-24., an equally 'timeless' view of the consequences of the dualistic cause and effect actions of the selfish elite within any society.

     The Christ simply states:

      ' ... It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God...'

       Undoubtedly the intent of this aphorism is to highlight the negative consequences of holding fast to conventional mores and the elitist, ‘real’ political aims within the social world. These aphorisms clearly highlights the historical negative cycle of personal and mass cause and effect derived from gross greed and self-centered materialism etc. These aphorisms further signify that attachments to the sense of self, ‘I’ and ‘mine’ and the lust and greed for ‘real’ power, land, material objects, sensory pleasure effectively blocks individuals from actually entering the process of inner purification and the stages necessary to re-tune and resolve relative dualistic perception into the 'one' consciousness.               

       Thereby the Buddha and the Christ indicate that greedy materialists are barred by the very nature of their attachments and actions from attaining intuitive experience of the natural ‘birthright’ of the non-dual Buddha Nature or the 'everlasting life'. Despite the profound advice given by the Buddha and the Christ on the cause and effect consequences of karma, dualistic cause and effect that arises from following the mores of elite greed and materialism, certainly from the European colonial era, the basis of a racist/cultural/ religious dialogue was instituted and cemented to guide the enduring notion of the so-called 'superiority' of western colonialist and neo-colonialist nations.

      This dialogue is still used as a political tool when dealing with non-European and non-Christian civilizations, cultures and religions. Certainly the racist/cultural/religious dialogue still continues to condition the western public with the general mode and attitude of the western 'superiority' in terms of religion, the mental creativity, the wealth and political systems held by the western nations and especially the US., in regard to the non-white world.

       But within the very early Christian Gnostic text the Gospel of Thomas, dating from the 1st., or early 2nd., century AD., the Gnostic adept, Jesus the Christ, already warns in verse 36 that devotees should guard against the limiting political machinations of any and all politicized religious hierarchies. Historically the various politicized religious hierarchies of the West Asian traditions did not teach or direct 'worthy' devotees into the aims and the further means of the Gnostic lineage system necessary in order to realize the 'one' consciousness. Historically the so-called orthodox hierarchies have simply preached a simplistic exoteric doctrine and from this simplistic point of view taught devotees via outer concepts regarding the 'one' true religion. But with this simplistic point of view the hierarchies of 'state religion' directed the elite to perform their greedy, racist and violent actions within sensory/social world supposedly on behalf of the 'one' true deity.

       Here the Gnostic Jesus the Christ warns 'worthy' devotees to:

        “ [Remember] the Pharisees [the Jewish priests] and the scribes [the recorders and editors of religious texts] have taken [over] the keys [the means, the lineage instructions] of ‘knowledge’ and [have] hidden them [veiled them and even have suppressed the vista of the ‘applied’ system of the lineage tradition].

       “ [But] they themselves have not entered [have not been consecrated in to this ‘applied’ comprehensive lineage system].

       " Nor have they allowed to enter those [others who possess suitable inner sensitivity and] who wish to [enter into this lineage system, but have rather suppressed the vista of the comprehensive exoteric/ esoteric lineage approach]...”.

         The overall economic/consumer trends of modern western and eastern society seems to offer a very clear example of what  personal and mass cause and effect of humanity, based upon the mores of the elite guided by greed, lust and pride, can achieve or rather misconceive as way forward for humanity.  Within the  western US/Anglo-Saxon and the wider NATO., sphere of the world the effects of the historical racist/ cultural/ religious dialogue and the consequent attitude of western 'superiority' has certainly helped and supported the continued rule of the elite and has reinforced the rise of the criminal gambling mode of the elite owned banks etc., who now dominate the global economic/financial world. These attitudes have helped in the rapid watering-down of western democracy and has helped the conditioning habit or even the addiction to thoughtless 'locust-like' consumerism and the rise of the profligate 'throw away' society etc.

       The attitude of cultural/religious 'superiority' and the elite hate of egalitarian democracy has aided in the contemporary era the ascendancy of the generally anti-social mores of monetary 'greed and profit at any cost' actively pursued by the elite owned international  banks and financial houses. The banks and financial houses made huge profits out of financial gambling especially over the past decades. But the wealthy, the banks etc., and large corporations have shown their contempt to the rest of society by using holes in the tax system to pay lower taxes than ordinary tax payers or to simply move monies into tax havens etc.

       This attitude of the so-called 'masters of the universe' is summed up the greed, the gambling with depositor's funds and the contempt for the mores of democratic society that fueled 2008 AD., financial crisis. Here these so-called 'masters' created a crisis by piling up multi-billions of dollars in bad property mortages and then by piling up even more trillions by leveraging tranches of these property mortages, containing a percentage of bad property mortages, into toxic financial securities etc.

     These massive debts made the balance sheets of the banks, financial houses and insurance companies etc., go very sour. The effects of these debts made the system of creating credit by way of leveraging 'good' exotic securities to fail and the financial good health of individual, companies and even nations was/is put in real jeopardy.

       Here the mega-rich elite and their failing banks and corporations etc., fell over themselves to demand from the politicians 'socialism for the wealthy' to make up their immediate losses. With arguments of 'too big to fail', the banks and insurance companies etc., persuaded the politicians to use the funds of the tax paying public to give multi-billion bailouts to the huge banks etc., in order to prevent them from going under. 'Socialism for the rich' came from the funds of the tax paying public.

       But previously and especially over the last decade, the wealthy have never shared their huge profits and always did their best to pay a minimum of taxes. So much for the elite trumpeting the 'real' philosophy of the 'free market' where the elite proponents of this financial philosophy say that 'naturally' by way of the 'real' market forces, the weak, bad gamblers and the inept will fail and go under etc.

       But once the banks etc., and the elite recovered from the financial crisis, with the help of tax payer's monies, the elite were not thankful to the ordinary tax payer and even went on to take advantage of the continuing credit crisis. Right-wing politicians then went on to institute long term financial policy line which could well return and render western society into an undemocratic and unrepresentative situation like that which existed during the first half of the 19th., century before the rise of unions, labor laws and social security system etc.

     Here the elite have remained true to their habitual, anti-social aims and goals despise the veneer of compassionate religion and the veneer egalitarian democracy that only fitfully arose over the past two hundred and fifty years or so.

       In fact the reactionary right hate compassionate, egalitarian religion well as hate social democratic aims and goals. So that following the financial crisis, started by the gambling of the banks and the large insurance companies with exotic securities etc., the reactionary conservative again sought to take full hold of reins of power within western society. Voters were conditioned by corporate media propaganda to fear the consequences of financial/economic failure and were/are persuaded to elected the lawmakers now leading today's often reactionary right-wing conservative parties. These parties, at the orders of the banks, have enacted the reactionary policy of economic austerity together with moves to cut of social programs etc., that have help the ordinary public in hard times.

       The long term negative example of living under the selfish mores of elite and their well tried methods in dealing with and controlling the mass of the population has hardened many of the general public into the cause and effect, social/political habit of relying and fostering elitist aims and goals. As suggested in previous paragraphs the mega-rich still use the concepts and dogmas of outer fundamentalist religion and the mores of cultural/religious superiority as means to control modern western and even the global wide capitalist societies.

      At present elite reactionary financial/religious forces do not like the cost of 'freedom' which had previously cost them their hold in fully shaping financial/religious/patriotic ideals or in the cost of taxes necessary to uphold the systems of health and social welfare as well as society in general etc., etc. Today, the current cause and effect trend of reactionary conservative thought and action is aimed at ending and retreating from the past three centuries uneven evolution of western society etc., towards a fair and democratic society benefiting all members of society.

         But the run of the mill followers of these modern right-wing reactionary parties, like the US., GOP., the UK Conservative Party etc., are seemily just the ignorant fools of the propaganda machine issuing from corporate owned media and thereby are just used as tools by the moneyed elite. With the votes of these ignorance reactionaries, the elite, especially in the US., are attempting to turn back the clock to the unfair, unequal and ill-educated social conditions that prevailed during the 19th ., century AD.

      The modern global elite really want to regain total control of modern western and eastern society in order to let their capital, placed within a so-called international 'free market', to be unhindered by all and any regulations and even be free of the government's responsibilities for society in general. The elite wish wash their hands of any responsibilities towards the greater society and to become free of all regulations on the environment and the working place etc. They envisage an elite form of plutocratic government and just want this form of government to limit government's role in society to just pursing wars for geo-political interests and for the private profit of the industrial/military/security complex.

        Following the 2008 financial crisis and the bailout of the banks etc., the monied elite and their agents the banks, the corporate media and the corporate lobbyists have conspired to thoroughly fool the voters. They have conspired to elect lawmakers and heads of state who will enact a state policy of austerity as well as forwarding the very profitable 'perpetual war on terror', much like the scenario of Orwell's '1984', within all western and NATO., nations against the rise and competition of China, Russia, India and Brazil etc.

       All this in order to operate these western nations for the maximum profit benefiting the monied elite. While conditioning and fully controlling the western public with laws which run against civil liberties, civil rights but while upholding the medieval views of fundamental religion, whilst also turning these nations towards 'war for profit' and misused patriotism. By way of corporate media, reactionary corporate politicians propose and enact policies of fiscal austerity. They propose libertarianism and in addition pose as the only bulwark against the rise of feminism, 'gay' and even enviromental, civil and human rights etc. In effect the mega-rich elite are trying to set the stage for political rule by plutocrats; and or rule by autocratic fundamental religious reactionaries within extreme, totalitarian, nationalist rightist regimes.

       The US., and NATO., western public etc., are being fooled and conditioned by the messages of the corporate media. They being conditioned by security fears and by the distractions of selfish ambition; made foolishly by dreaming about celebrity and made foolish by spending so much time on the internet social media etc. At present the public are distracted by their own laziness, by their own mediocrity and by their lack of creative education which bars thoughtful analysis on current economic/foreign affairs etc. All this has bred and engendered a lack of the understanding in the need for reasoned, concerted action in dealing with the many, major problems facing modern societies.

        From this rightist trend of mass political cause and effect, the dreams of a better life for all via representative, social democracy is being fast eroded through-out the globe. The three century long political trend aimed towards greater social democracy is being turned aside by the trend of policies adhering and catering to the narrow, callous and uncompassionate inclinations of the reactionary hard right.

       The reactionaries of the hard right and the followers of the fundamental Judeo-Christian religion are growing as the rising western political 'taste'. Here the reactionary cultural/religious/racist trend has become the rightist/elite model, needed to be applied to answer the questions of government, politics, taxes/wealth and geo-political power. The elite use the corporate media to expresses their so-called 'god given' or 'biblical' line for controlling society. Here via the media, the elite are confusing the public and are seen as upholding 'serious' moral, theistic religion offered to 'god' despite the elite's obvious hypocrisy, greed and their attachment to violent privatized war for the profit.

        In the US., there is no real center or center-left party left. The Democrats are right-wing party contesting with the extreme right/ fundamentalist leaning GOP. The public of the US/Anglo-Saxon and NATO., spheres are conditioned, distracted and unaware of the bigger and pressing issues of today's world and their unawareness can be translated as the malaise of disinterest even ignorance that now affects western society. From their ignorance and disinterest the public do not really know or understand a number of very urgent, major problems now facing modern society.

       These very urgent, major problems facing modern society must be seen off in the near future otherwise all societies comprising human civilization cannot go forward and prosper. Over the coming half-century the activities of these major problems facing humanity, that have been building up by the greedy economic/ financial efforts of elite since the Industrial Revolution, will finally come home to roost.

    These include the trend of unsustainable, world-wide 'locust-like' consumerism with its phony PR., message; a rapidly rising world population; a long-term water problem and a long-term energy problem that can only be really solved by solar power and by nuclear power in well placed locations. Also there is the major problem of the acidification of the sea giving rise to complete the loss of fish stocks as well the dying out of the corral reefs; the meld-down of the polar ice fields and the meld-down of the vast areas of permafrost that will seriously add to the gas emissions of global warming etc., etc.

       Of course the biggest problems come from global warming and climate change. Serious sciencists warn that the Earth's temperature will rise by 2 degree within 50 years. This together with the cause and effect consequences of 'locust-like', 'throw-away' consumerism, the source of greed and distraction coloring all developed society, could bring about the rise of the oceans and the destruction of the environment as well as final destruction of tribal and natural animal habitats.  

    The elite mega-rich tell blatant lies that climate change was/is not being brought about by mass human industrial/economic/financial cause and effect nor by the effects of mass, 'locust-like' consumerism. The corporate media still persists in telling these lies and many other blatant lies regarding the system of social democracy.

        Actually the present, world-wide economic and financial system owned and run to benefit the mega-rich elite is a huge multi-armed and soulless machine that firmly holds the world within its arms. Also the cause and effect predicament that the whole of humanity finds itself in, can even be pictured as a very large ocean going vessel, much like the ill-fated Titanic. The ocean-going vessel is made up of limbs of banking/financial system that operates the free market and the consumer/military/security complex. This 'ocean going vessel[ carrying modern humanity is being rapidly pushed with the cause and effect forward momentum of an ever expanding system of credit and GDP.

        With so much momentum the 'vessel' cannot turn or let alone stop in time to avert the disaster presented by the 'iceberg' of global warming and climate change and the subsequent anarchy that will surely hit human society. With the aid of reasonable scientists a thoughtful public can be become aware that the 'iceberg' of climate change is ahead but we are seemly powerless to turn or stop somewhat the present rate of economic momentum. We can see this 'iceberg' but we also see that the 'ship' of humanity is firmly under the hands of the mega-rich elite.

       In this way the cause and effect consequences of negative business momentum, selfish greed as well as the negative right-wing political momentum, all controlled by the mega-rich elite, is stuck at full throttle. The cause and effect consequences of greedy economic/financial momentum is the fruit of both the mega-rich and their minions who are attached to their tested, greedy ways to make money out of the economic and financial system and of course us, by believing and fostering that 'greed for wealth' is a positive element within society. But given the current rise of the reactionary right, the elite have their hand firmly on the levers of power and for the foreseeable future will not let them go!

        Elite reactionaries only want to maintain and continue the present elite and greed orientated society that now only really benefits the elite and their allies. But all this being true nevertheless unless the elite do change the present 'course' for the world-wide humanity, the 'vessel of humanity' will not be able to miss the 'iceberg' of climate change and the other major problems. Thereby any march towards the dream of sane, sustainable as well as a egalitarian, compassionate and humane society will be always be opposed by the greedy goals, policies and the machinations of the elite.

        Here the historical machinations of elite has in general deflected the message of the seminal adept founding masters of the Eurasian religions regarding the infinite 'birthright ' of the finite body/mind and have historically disrupted and confused the setting up of humane societies capable of expressing that goal etc. Over the next half-century the cause and effect processes of the Earth, visited as global warming, climate change etc., could spell the end of the Earth as we know it. This could well happen from the cause and effect consequences of human endeavors coupled with the cause and effect consequences of an ever expanding, greedy trend of materialism.

       Unfortunately this is inheritance likely to be given by us to future generations. We should be well and truely ashamed. This inheritance could well be brought about by our clinging to past and present elitist mores, both of the right and the left, and from being fully amused and distracted with consumer items that have made us lazy and not really bothered to work and build a really democratic society that could be both sustainable and much more simple in its ideals.

     In two generations our children and grand-children could well see our Earth begin to radically change and also see the slow and painful destruction of elite capitalism and the ending of the economic system of locust-like, throw-away consumerism. But the end of these now unsustainable economic systems could well be a long, very messy and very chaotic trend and could throw up a very bloody period of world-wide anarchy. Such is the cause and effect consequences of three thousand years of personal and mass human karma unless we can all radically change our daily habits NOW!

       (c.,) The innate birthright of humanity.

       The knowledge, which is great, is known as the Great Knowledge and it is the Innate [divine] Knowledge.

                                                                                                                                    YRM., commenting on H.T., 1.1.13.

       However in the future, if humanity survives the effects of global climate change and the fall of the social, financial and economic systems controlled by the elite, the dream of the adept founding masters of the Eurasian applied religions, for all humanity to realize the ever-present and infinite 'one' consciousness by harnessing the finite body/mind remains unresolved.

       Here CMR.T 9.30-32 sums up this prime task.

       [Knowledge of the inherent but concealed 'natural' state is always present but] one can die by being poisoned by one's own imaginings. But still, even without any [mental] poison [but still not having attained this concealed knowledge] one can die, going to the heaven realms or to the lower realms.

      “Knowing the [poisonous] nature of the world to be thus, the wise [seek to] attain the Release.

       “This Release is the emptiness after the [flame of] the lamp [or rather dualistic consciousness] is blown out by the [gathering of the yoga] winds. “[However] when the lamp [or rather the body] is broken [dead], the flame [of consciousness] also dies and cannot not lead [the 'worthy' practitioner] to enlightenment.

       “Therefore, relinquishing all things [the delusions of relative dualistic mind] the vow-holder should only be devoted to [the innate, 'one' consciousness]....”.

        So despite the 'message' of the applied eastern and western lineage traditions of esoteric/cosmic religion, at present humanity is generally content to be continuously attached to emotionally driven, ‘arising’ desire cycles of the 'unnatural' sensory mind, that drive full participation in the greedy mores of materialism and consumerism etc. These 'arising' desire cycles and their allied emotional trends etc., generate the habitual attention of the relative, sensory mind and rule out any more simple and/or subtle approaches to living.

            This type of greedy, unfocussed attention and the attachment to the 'arising ' desire drives coupled with the lust and pride for sensory objects, external pleasure objects etc., always maintains the veil of ignorance on the potential nature of the undifferentiated mind and the 'one' consciousness. Here this mental veil conceals the faculties of the components of the purified physical ‘temple’ that can be experienced by the state of undifferentiated consciousness etc.

           Clearly by clinging to the conditioning habit of unfocussed, dualistic desires, a continuous inner process of attachment to desire, selfishness and ignorance etc., hinders any possibility of attaining the necessary degrees of inner ‘mental asceticism’ as well as the positive feelings of compassion, selflessness etc., that in turn can possibly lead to a dawning of undifferentiated consciousness etc. Thereby the opportunity to abstract and concentrate the mind towards the eventuality of attaining the innate knowledge of the finite body/mind let alone attaining the psychic potentiality of the finite body/mind is constantly lost in the mass of humanity. In the main popular theistic religion has never taken up and taught devotees the complete doctrinal exoteric/esoteric/cosmic concepts relating to the possible realization the innate 'one' nature.

        Ignorance of the 'innate' non-dual nature occurs because of the conditioning to so-called sensory 'normalicy', where familiarity of conventional motivation is achieved by the ingrained habits of attachment to sensory dualism or rather sensory subject/object, pleasure/aversion, fear/security etc., to the exclusion of the inner tasks.  From these basic causes individuals are generally unable to perform the task of harnessing the breath, focusing on the inner components, the yoga nerves etc., and the complete refocusing of dualistic consciousness towards any limited or even protracted degrees of abstract concentration.

        It is not that the ‘birthright’ of the 'one' consciousness in intrinsically unobtainable because of ‘original sin’, as is suggested by Semitic theistic religious traditions, but rather a knowable divine ‘birthright’ has in essence been often conceived as being unnecessary in these major 'faith' based religious traditions. Under the exoteric doctrines of the non-Indian traditions, devotees should only apply 'belief and 'faith' in 'god' and the written 'words' of the  prophets as set out within the prime texts of these traditions but not worry about the further esoteric/cosmic means. Thereby the exoteric/esoteric/cosmic means applied by the 'worthy' disciples of the yoga lineages, necessary in order to experience the innate nature of the 'birthright' or the 'everlasting life,' often remains unknown to a majority of devotees from the non-Indian, theistic religions etc.

        Despite vehemently proposing the unique ‘truth’ of their doctrinal and conceptual stances of devotion to the 'one' deity, apparently dominant contemporary non-Indian cultural/religious traditions have in reality little or no inkling of what actually constitutes the meaning of the word ‘divine’ or the 'everlasting life'; or what constitutes the veiled potentiality of the transcendental 'one' consciousness that is 'innate' to the transitory ‘temple' of the body/mind. But this potentiality, characterized as the 'everlasting life' in some Semitic traditions, can be expressed by some of the South Asian traditions as the inner yoga or 'union' of the divine female, radiance/male, resonance. Success in achieving this inner/cosmic union of bipolar divine natures can lead to the unfolding and/or the ultimate realization of the uncreated 'one' deity or 'one' consciousness.

      Thereby while the major Semitic, theistic religious traditions etc., are content to continuously pontificate on ethics, morality, theism etc., or to conceptualize and postulate the ongoing pre-determining role of their personal 'one' deity within dualistic daily sensory life, they nevertheless fail to appreciate that the potentiality for intuitive knowledge of the infinite 'one' actually always rests within the consciousness potential of the 'living' finite bodies/minds of the mass of humanity, both female and male. But by applying the yoga system received from an accomplished, adept guru, 'master', of the exoteric/esoteric/cosmic lineages, it is up to the individual, 'worthy' disciple/practitioner to take up this task and personally concentrate inwardly. Thereby from concentration the 'worthy' practitioner can possibly eventually thoroughly purify and efficiently harness the bipolar natures of the finite body/mind of the finite ‘temple’.


          But for the most part, the average devotees following the Semitic theistic or the South Asian religions to not conceive or really understand the consciousness potentiality of finite body/mind. For them an innate, infinate non-dual ‘birthright’ always remains unknown and never awaits investigation as the prime true purpose of religion. However for the 'worthy' yogi-s belonging to the various yoga lineages their prime task is to discipline and harness the finite body/mind in order to   directly know the non-dual 'birthright'. Mature yogi-s do not pursue 'blind' belief, faith and devotion to an unknowable 'god'. For mature yogi-s the prime task of yoga automatically rules out being involved in the pursuit of relative materialistic greed or the pursuit of sensory pleasure.

        The prime yoga task may well sound ridiculous to many struck within the duality of sensory consciousness who are fully involved with the aims of materialism. But nevertheless modern science indicates that under normal circumstances, even genius status contemporary humans still only inefficiently use a maximum of fifteen percent of the human brain. Then what is the potentiality offered by the other unused eighty-five percent of the brain? What can be attained by yogi-s who habitually abstract and concentrate their minds and thereby gradually harnessing the creativity of the hitherto unused portions of the brain in an unselfish, compassionate and selfless manner?

       From contact with Hindu and Tibetan yoga masters the author has become more aware of the great potentiality offered by the abstracted, concentrated mind. The author has become impressed with the fact that the evolutionary path of humanity is not necessarily towards a greater but unstable as well as unsustainable degrees of mass ‘consumerism’, mass materialism or be aimed towards the possible conquest of space, as a means to overcome any such limitations.

        Under the yogi view these relative ongoing evolutionary avenues, offered to and accepted by the mass of humanity, essentially represent evolutionary diversions generated by thousands of years of the dominance of humanity by the power-hungry elite and by greedy elitist ambitions aimed at fully controlling land, trade, production and capital etc. From the yogi view, elitist orientated evolutionary avenues rather appear to be cul-de-sacs because they have never recognized the inner potential of the fully disciplined, concentrated mind in company with the harnessed physical ‘temple’.

       A fully disciplined mind and a fully harnessed physical ‘temple’ can be free of karma, or the 'cause and effect' drives of dualistic attachment and the habits of recurring memory, sensory desire, of ‘I’ and ‘mine’. Accomplished adept yogi-s can experience unimagined degrees of self-sufficiency, self-containment and freedom from reliance on materialism or even the gross biological necessities. Clearly the unused eighty-five percent of the brain does encompass the potentiality for the creative pursuit and attainment of the innate knowledge of the divine ‘birthright’ of humanity etc.

        However conventional and dualistic obsessions with ‘I’ and ‘mine' as well as consuming and materialistic pursuits, conditions the mass of individuals away from any appreciation of the full means to their innate potentiality. The various modes of sectarian, theistic religious devotion and outer, exoteric doctrines etc., have simply become ‘insurance’ policies for an uncertain ‘afterlife’. This devotional vista is certainly suited to the guilty requirements of the selfish, greedy and money obsessed, elitist-led society and for the mass of humans distracted by materialism and sensory attachment. But the external obsessions of the major religions with the purely outer, exoteric doctrinal vista, the vista of theism, the 'true' religion etc., keeps many devotees away from assessing the 'divine' potentiality of the finite body/mnd that can be potentially known from applying the esoteric and cosmic methods etc.

        From contact with yoga masters, the author has come to appreciate that the ability to comprehensively control and master the breath can include the possibility of prolonged creative concentration. This possibilty can lead a general and normal incidence of psychic faculties and even freedom from gross eroticism etc. Such comprehensive control also potentially offers freedom from the need to take what are now normal but actually gross amounts of food; freedom from long periods of sleep and even freedom from taking the normal twenty-six thousand or so breaths per day.

       Such self-sufficiency and self-containment from gross biological requirements and needs, further allowing a relatively simple life style, could be made possible by fully using the capacity of the human brain and the capabilities of the abstracted concentrated human mind. This would allow the the harnessed breath, the yoga nerves and the ‘chemical factory’ of the glandular system of the body to function at an optimum, efficient degree releasing the optimum energy of the life-force.

       But a cynical reader could well ask if this is some kind of pipe dream? However from the author’s own experience from contact with adept yogi-s he has had the opportunity appreciate a unlimited vista of this potential first hand. From this contact the author has begun to appreciate that upon protracted establishment within states of abstract mental concentration adept yogi-s are capable of utilizing the brain, breath and mind/consciousness in a manner generally unimagined and unknown to ordinary human society in general.

      The author has had personal contact with Hindu and Tibetan yogi-s that are able to awaken, release and channel the coiled-up energy/capability, the ‘secret fire’. Tibetan yogi-s manifest ‘heat’ that as a bye product is capable of drying numerous wet cloths placed on their bodies. When correctly channeled this ‘heat’ demonstrates the nature of balanced efficiency within the inner realm of the body/mind and allows the manifestation of non-sensual, non-erotic bliss that far outweighs gross erotic pleasure.

      Other Hindu and Tibetan yogi-s known to the author can healthily exist for long periods while eating only a very minimum, even simply eating only a single alchemic pill per day during months long meditation retreats. During retreat other masters of breath regulation simply take only four breaths a day while remaining unsleeping in states of constant, deep, abstract concentration.

       Other Hindu yogi-s known to the author were able to transform even disappear their bodies at will. Raj yogi-s, like Ram Nath Baba, were/are capable of transmitting their energy/capability over hundreds of yards, even many miles in order to allow disciples sitting in another location and at a pre-arranged time to concentrate and enter their minds into the undifferentiated consciousness of ‘universal’ field of the quantum energy etc.

       But these faculties of deep abstract concentration may appear to some to be ‘miraculous’ or to others be irrelevant because of the mores and motivations of contemporary existence. However these adepts of breath control generally indicated to the author that these faculties of the disciplined, concentrated mind are not miraculous but are actually quite normal and natural. Here all these different kinds of yogi-s indicate that humanity needs schooling on how the body/mind opperates, like a detailed opperating manual is necessary to service a computer etc. In fact these yogi-s always suggested that dualistic consciousness that veils the 'one' consciousness, is the 'unnatural' form of consciousness rather than the other way around. Here, under the yogi view, the only purpose of the relative world is to act as a testing ground for the practitioner in order to cultivate positive emotional traits.

       But these adept yogi-s also maintain that these so-called ‘miraculous’ faculties of the concentrated mind are generally preliminary states and stages preceding the total establishment in the energy/resonance of the Mother/Father's ‘uncreated’ divine 'one' quantum field. These yoga masters encountered by the author uniformly indicated that awakening the coiled-up energy/capability is the essential purpose of the regimes of breath regulation etc., and that on an individual basis this can be channeled in order to attain deep concentration which  may then manifest as a variety of psychic potentialities etc., etc.

     Clearly such 'natural' faculties of a concentrated mind point to the generally unrealized potentiality of the brain. These faculties point to the facility for the efficiently harnessed, finite body/mind to be naturally self-contained, self-sufficient and even to be eventually at 'one' with the 'uncreated' nature of the ‘one' consciousness. Under the applied yoga view, the body and mind can in reality be relatively free of the need to constantly rely upon gross materialism and certainly not to be solely reliant upon or guided by the needs of ‘greed-based’ capitalist/business logic.


       But for modern humanity, 'happily' living in the ever expanding 'throw-away', consumer mode of social existence there are very dangerous moral and ethical dilemmas linked to following economic/financial system based upon so-called normal, 'greed-based' conventional social/ business mores. These dangers certainly arise from the now acceptable social/business mode arising and stemming from the continual cultivation of the gross dualistic emotions of greed, lust and pride.

     Modern, individual Indian and western yogi-s etc., ascetic or householder, need to understand and accept these dilemmas and dangers in addition to the constant need to cultivate outer asceticism, inner 'mental asceticism', compassion and devotional love etc. As mentioned the cultivation of these mental qualities and these positive emotions form the core of any yogi-s' required daily task.  This constant daily task always requires that all types of yogi-s must overcome any and all lingering sense/worldly attachments of the individual self as well as to 'fight against' all internal mental obstacles and fears etc. Within the Muslim, Sufi esoteric tradition the word 'jihad' means the mental 'fight' to gain control of the mind and direct consciousness. 

         Objective success in the yogi's task of non-attachment to the mental trends of cause and effect etc., can give a personal appreciation of one's own dualistic mind set made up of the given emotions and the consequent trends/actions stemming from this base of dualistic, sense-based consciousness. But by means of correctly following the stages and processes of emanation and yoga, the trends etc., of an individual yogi's emotional dualistic consciousness can be slowly overcome and very gradual progress can be make towards refining consciousness towards the uncreated sahaja, the 'innate' or even the 'natural', advaita, non-dual state.

        Objectivity gained from an awareness of cause and effect, an individual devotee/yoga practitioner can be dedicated to the daily tasks of devotion, emanation and and yoga. Here devotees/yogi-s can appreciate the futility of being totally immersed, involved and thereby fully attached with the outer distractions of dualistic emotional consciousness etc.

        Further an objective appreciation of mass cause and effect can give a further general insight into others’ and society's situations. A general insight offers the potentially to allow a full appreciation of the generally selfish, greedy, exploitive and even contradictory aims of modern society as well as real dangers of following the conventional nature social/business existence generally based on capitalism, materialism and consumerism.


             (d.,) Bhava, sensibility.

               '...There are...four types of practitioners who are distinguished as being of weak, medium, strong and strongest sensibility...'.

                                                                                                                                          YRM., commenting on H.T.,1.6.24.


         Within any historical era and more especially during the contemporary era, devotees of 'applied' esoteric/cosmic religion and more especially devotees/disciples of the yogi lineages should be informed and well aware of and then appreciate, the actions of personal karma, 'cause and effect' as well as being aware of the actions coming from the karma-s of mass 'cause and effect'.

          From the long term appreciation of cause and effect, the devotee/practitioner of the yoga lineage can become fully aware of the consequent effects of so-called normal, conventional actions that in turn generate the trends of negative emotions leading to internal fears, selfishness, attachments and sorrows etc. In turn these lead to the obstacles of the dual mind and the consequent inner ignorance of the 'natural' state of consciousness etc. But by concentrating on the moment; by giving up all the external and internal attachments and overcoming inner obstacles etc., yogi-s can manifest degrees of inner knowledge.

         As mentioned overcoming all attachment to dualistic emotional consciousness as well as overcoming inner fears and obstacles caused by dualistic attachment, are the constant daily tasks and the daily tests of a successful yogı's mode of life. But today, both in India and in the West etc., the Hindu yoga milieu etc., is now often and generally ruled by guru 'personality cults'; the consequent trend of gross commercialism or has in part been taken over and incorporated as a successful and profitable part of the commercially-based western, global health business. In the main, from these trends, the agenda of yogi/yoga milieu is not now focused, directed or even doctrinally controlled by the ascetic, adept masters heading the various sectarian devotion or yoga lineages.

          So today, sadly, many inwardly blind, unrealized, but now very rich, so-called masters, often lead gullible, but equally inwardly blind devotees!

         Further, from commercialism there is a general lack of esoteric secrecy. Secrecy is necessary to maintain vows and observances given to the 'worthy' disciple by the 'true' lineage master at consecration into a particular system etc. This secrecy is necessary so as to keep the inner application of mantra-s, of emanation methods and yoga techniques ‘fresh’ or spontaneous. Here yoga manuals always indicate that the methods dealing with mantra-s or the methods of hatha-yoga and especially pranayama should be always kept secret.

         Here these systems should also be applied alone, at fixed times, 'away from the crowd' in a 'lonely place' but 'not in a forest' etc. A general lack of esoteric secrecy stems from the premature revelation of yoga methods, mantra-s etc., by way of the mass media; by books etc., and more especially through too hasty initiations into yoga positions and techniques by the guru 'cults' etc., without giving an understanding of the aims of the number of processes within a complete yoga  system etc.

         Seemily the often self-appointed masters of the commercial guru cults and/or keep fit/health clubs etc., more or less only seek out cash paying 'clients' rather than devotees/disciples who can manifest the correct inner sensibility and who are actually seeking to fulfill their inner potential for refined consciousness. In this climate, financial gain has become all important and has replaced the need for grading potential dicsiples/practitioners by way of the adept lineage master's observing the potential disciples' inner sensibility.

        Historically the siddha-s, the accomplished 'adepts' of the overall yoga lineage, only accepted 'worthy' disciples via following the doctrine of the bhava-s, or the different, graduated stages of 'inner sensibility'. Within the Shaiva and Shaiva/ Shakta orthodox and tantric traditions the different grades of devotees/practitioners included those of the pashu, the 'bound' devotee; the vira, the 'heroic' practitioner and the divya, 'divine', the fully released practitioner.

         Further, the tantric Buddhist or Hindu Kaula tantric yoga practitioner of 'weak' sensibility can be equated to the initiated 'bound' devotee; the tantric yoga practitioner of 'medium' sensibility can be equated to 'heroic' devotee; the tantric yoga practitioner of 'strong' sensibility can be equated to 'divine' devotee and finally the adept practitioner of 'very strong' sensibility can be equated to the fully 'accomplished' or cosmic devotee/ practitioner.

         Here 'inner sensibility' can generally refer to the capability and potential of different devotees and practitioners to directly intuit the sajaha, the 'natural state' of non-dual consciousness. The technical yoga term, the 'natural state', was/is used by both the Hindu and Buddhist tantric yoga traditions. The overall yoga lineage holds that the 'natural state' of consciousness is fully undifferentiated or is rather uncreated and is the 'one' consciousness 'innate' to all humanity. But by individual, sensory cause and effect this universal 'innate' potential is generally overlayed and concealed by the habits and trends of mental dualism. Yoga adepts hold that the 'natural state' can be only fully realized after a protracted even by a multi-life time process of overcoming the delusive habits, trends of relative, dualistic emotional consciousness.

         The necessary vista of the doctrine of 'bhava', historically applied by the lineage of adepts, arose because in general the overwhelming majority of individuals and devotees generally only possess very limited, inner sensibility towards realizing the potential of 'natural' non-dual consciousness.  Historically adepts accepted and applied this doctrine as the only means to grade potential disciples. Adepts applied this doctrine together with their intuitive insight.  

         According to adept's insight  potential devotees and disciples were graded by their 'bhava' and were reject or accept by their perceived inner sensibility . Adepts only graded potential disciples by this means and by no other criteria. By means of a further grading, the various types of acceptable 'worthy' devotees and disciples could then enter into the various stages and processes of the graduated emanation and yoga system best suited to their internal 'sensibility'. 

           Obviously because of the limitations of inner sensibility, caused by conforming to the individual trends of dualistic, emotional cause and effect, most individuals are unable to apply the stages and processes of emanation and yoga in an effective and correct manner. As in the past, today the majority of the unnitiated 'bound' and/or very limited individuals are simply barred by lineage adepts because they are totally ruled by the inherent limitations of the gross dualistic mind set. Because of these limitations unfortunely the majority of unnititated 'unworthy' individuals cannot be accepted or even come near the adept, sat-guru, 'true' lineage master.

          As in the past, in the contemporary era any possible disciples of the traditional yogi lineage, who possess acceptable inner sensibility, have to prepare for and then cultivate the austere life-style of yogi-s. As mentioned the traditional yogi-s life-style is centered on non-attachment and positive emotion etc., to the relative modern mores of a seperate self, and the mores of materialism and consumerism ruled by the emotions of greed, lust, pride, envy, anger, and delusion etc., etc.

         Real or rather 'worthy' disciples of the yoga lineage have to be over a life time etc., unafraid of the exploration and the conquest of the seperate self and the dualistic mind ruled by the emotions of anger, lust, envy, greed etc. This is in order so that practitioners can thoroughly cure the emotional habits of the dualistic sense-based mind. But to start an efficient cure, potential disciples must seek out the difficult to find, bona-fide the sat-guru, 'true' yoga lineage master. Only an interplay with a 'true' lineage master can really offer a 'worthy' disciple 'real' or thorough lineage teachings via a series of initiations and consecrations into the processes of emanation and yoga etc.

           (e.) Seeking a master.

            '...But few desires and satisfaction with simple things is the sign of a superior man.'

                                                                                                                                   Section 19 of The Precepts of the Guru-s.

        Despite the arising and allure of the commercial 'guru' cults, some offering good, basic devotional and yoga techniques,  potential yoga practitioners should be patient and devote the time to seek out their own individual the 'true' lineage master. But the 'true' master is an extreme rarity and 'true' lineage masters often seek to lie hidden from the public and the mass of devotees. The task of patiently looking for a 'true' master is a very long term task and finding him or her is very difficult. 

        Here, from my own experience, religious devotees and possible disciples of emanation and yoga must carefully, patiently and diligently seek out a adept 'true' master from amongst the dross of fraudulent posers and/or health 'gurus' who claim to know or to be realized adept masters of devotion and yoga etc.

        In all the historic periods of the overall yoga lineage, including the modern era, the simple, ascetic life style of a orthodox or a tantric adept yogi etc., is generally always set on the very edge of conventional society. A very simple life style can offer some initial clues about the identity of a Hindu or Tibetan Buddhist 'true', orthodox or tantric, yoga master. His or her simple life-style should be based on a fixed regime of asceticism, the application of vows including 'mental asceticism' and compassion etc.

        The simple life-style and the fixed regime of 'real' yogi-s and adept yoga masters does not include the normal, conventional pursuits of every day life. Following a simple life and a fixed regime does not include the conventional pursuits of the modern 'guru personality cults'. Nor does a simple life etc., include the greedy aims of normal relative society centered on acquiring fame, political power, wealth, property and even gaining so-called spiritual power over a mass of gullible or weak individuals by way of theistic religious doctrines etc.

        In order to enter into a close, personal relationship with a lineage holding master both the master and the disciple must perform a dispassionate and objective investigation of one another. Such an objective investigation must take place despite the obvious necessity of conforming to normal degrees of social etiquette and to the social necessity for offering respect to an acknowledged lineage holding master.

        The need for such investigation is undoubtedly essential today in order to avoid becoming unnecessarily involved in the hard sell attitude of the 'guru cults' etc., or become entangled within the delusions of the simplistic 'all knowing', instant doctrines of the capricious, ego-orientated, so-called masters and the fanatic followers of their personality cults etc.

         In actuality the master/disciple relationship should only be considered on a deeply personal level. Such a deeply personal relationship requires goodwill, confidence, honesty and devotion on both sides.

         Entering into such a relationship is not a matter of fashion or prestige and is certainly not for any material gain. Entry into such a relationship should rather be a clear headed, informed, devotionally-based decision only mutually entered into for the purpose of imparting and receiving consecrations and instructions aimed at attaining a particular sectarian path towards the refinement of consciousness etc.

          For the potential disciple essentially no amout of hearsay or public demonstrations of faith ot loyalty shown by a particular master's disciples should deflect a dispassionate approach towards investigating lineage holding masters. Proselytizing rhetoric, often based on unsubstantiated instant doctrinal concepts etc., and the repetition of relative personal opinions regarding the merits of a particular sectarian tradition or a particular master within that tradition etc., are in fact as much a hinderance than a help for potential yoga disciples.

         In respect of the necessity of scrutiny and self-scrutiny the third aphorism of the Ten Requirements [that] Come Next by Je-Gampo-Rinpoche initially suggest to the disciple that:

        ' To avoid error in choosing a guru the disciple requires knowledge of his own faults and virtues'.

         Further, even 19th., century AD., Hindu Tantric treatises, such as a root treatise of the Shakta dashamahavidya tradition, the sankhyayana-tantra, that discusses the cycle of the eighth Mahavidya, the Goddess Bagala, further emphasizes that scrutiny comes from mutual investigation. From the point of view of both the master and the disciple this treatise succinctly characterizes the nature of the correct approach to consecration and the necessity for mutual investigation by stating:

        ' The one who desires liberation should obtain mantra by offering service to the guru. [By] that way all accomplishments are attained.

         ' Do not offer [mantric] science for [mantric] science or [offer mantric] science for money. Give [consecration into mantra] to the true and deserving disciple, not [merely] for money, comfort etc.  

        ' Do not give [consecration] to a disciple whose mind is unsteady or who has a bad character and who does not [fully] respect the guru [and his lineage]. Avoid [the disciple] who has eccentric [erratic or changeable] behavior.

        ' Let him [the potential disciple] not be competitive and independent and let him know what is permanent and impermanent. Let [only] the disciple who is pure and devoted, [who] is disinterested in wealth, land and property and who is released from the eight [mental] bonds [receive consecration].

        ' If the guru and the disciple do not test each others qualities and just blindly accept one another, both will become [willfully] domineering [or inimical by nature] '.

         Further in this respect No.9., ninth aphorism of the Ten Things to be Done, Je-Gampo-Rinpoche, states: ' Retain such disciples as are firm in faith, humble in spirit and who appear to be favored by karma [cause and effect] in their quest for divine wisdom'.

         In order to avoid such pitfalls the master must observe and ascertain the emotional qualities of the possible disciple and the possible disciple must be candid in truthfully ascertaining and revealing to the master his own faults and virtues. At the same time the disciple must patiently attempt to ascertain and investigate whether the actual ethical, moral and doctrinal outlook of a particular lineage holding master conforms to the accepted mores of the lineage tradition to which he belongs etc.

         When seeking to realistically ascertain, test and appreciate the qualities of a lineage master, the disciple should adopt a humble but inquisitive stance and by unobtrusively entering the master's company should gradually learn of his moral, ethical and doctrinal stances and activities in society etc. Further in order to ascertain whether or not the disciple can harmonize with the master, the disciple can apply the devotional system of darshana-yoga or 'seeing' or rather ‘being at one with the [master's] presence’.

         'Being at one with master's presence' the devotee mentally petitions the master for spiritual insight. In the visual presence of the master and through quieting and calming the mind, a potential disciple can potentially experience some subtle electromagnetic contact with the resonance emanated by the master's inner accomplishment and may be fortunate to experience preliminary blissful degrees of inner insight.

         From the master’s side if the disciple in fact possesses suitable qualities and potentiality the master must further investigate the disciple in order to ascertain the disciple's degree of sensibility towards the fundamental doctrinal principles of his particular lineage tradition. By this means the master can ascertain the extent and degree of the emotional obstacles in the disciple’s mind set.

        Thereby the master can decide or not upon the degree of consecration that can be conferred upon the given potential disciple etc. Ascertaining the degree of sensibility of a given individual will allow the master to appreciate whether a potential disciple possesses necessary positive emotional qualities in order to be consecrated into a exoteric/esoteric regime.  

         Further, ascertaining the sensibility of the disciple will allow the master to appreciate whether a potential disciple possesses the necessary degrees of self-reliance, perseverance, emotional discipline etc., and from this can appreciate the degree to which the disciple is capable of upholding the applied vows that define the essential 'applied' nature of consecration.

         The mode of darshana-yoga also occurs during and after consecration where within ritually defined parameters or on a spontaneous basis, the master manifests his/her accomplishment clearly. Within this resonating field of consciousness, after having already refining the disciple's inner sensibility, the master seeks to 'point to' or rather intuitively awaken the disciple to appreciate the inherent, internal degrees of subtle consciousness and intuitive inner experience always laying within the disciple's own field of perception.

            (f.) My personal ignorance of the various Indian systems of emanation and yoga leading to protracted study and then to translation projects.

          'Within it [the yoga system] all the doctrines of dispute [the outlooks of various philosophical schools], which lead [devotees] to false views, are discarded.

                                                                                                                                                                                shiva-samhita 1.3.

         Aspiring yoga practitioners should bear in mind that rational, constructive thought does not hinder progress towards finding a bona-fide master or when found, in appreciating a given master’s system. Whereas hearsay, gullibility and the ready, hasty surrender of will to others and their claims certainly are actual enemies barring inner progress.

         As in the example offered daily by the receipt of ‘spam’ e-mails, something advertised as giving instant happiness, financial gain or something offered for free rarely if ever match up to such claims. So also with instant spiritual ‘knowledge’ or the other claims of spiritual groups suggesting they are be able to cater to the personal needs of a mass of devotees.

          Mass delusion is self-perpetuating therefore in this context the 'wrong way' is always like following the easy downward flow of water and the 'right way' is to struggle against the popular current. Therefore as an aid while seeking fulfillment in finding a bona-fide lineage master etc., potential disciples should commence an objective process of informing themselves.

         This is necessary in regard to the understand the broad basis of a comprehensive sectarian, devotion and yoga lineage system that accords with their devotional predilections. Prior to fulfilling the difficult quest of finding a bona-fide master and gaining the boon of acceptance by such a bona-fide lineage master the potential disciple must also appreciate and accept that protracted study is required.

          Continued protracted study is necessary and required in order to come to a meaningful comprehension of what is required of the disciple to apply and attain the systemic theory and aims of particular orthodox or tantric yoga systems. Such a basic appreciation of the stages within such applied exoteric/esoteric yoga systems is undoubtedly necessary so that publicly aired views of the orthodox hierarchies, or of cult figures and celebrated adepts/devotees can be put into a systematic perspective and the validity or not of their outlooks clearly be appreciated by the individual potential practitioner.

          Undoubtedly because of conditioning cultural factors, objective broad-based, multi-tradition studies are not always possible for devotees from specific traditional cultural/religious contexts. But by being unburdened by a traditional Asian social outlook, potential western practitioners of emanation and yoga have a good opportunity for real benefits accrued from study. But the benefits of objective study are only for those who can rise above the influence cast by the limited outlook of devotional or yoga-based guru cults or by the popular cliches offered by the martial arts and health clubs.

          From initial contact with accomplished meditation masters of various sectarian traditions at the great Indian religious fairs and subsequently in other contexts, the author commenced an enduring interest in the various Indian systems of emanation and yoga. These systems are outlighted in the textural traditions of the principal sects of the Hindu tradition and in the texts of the Buddhist Mahayana and Mantrayana traditions.

          Over the years, the author, as a confirmed amateur and improviser, had the time to study the vocabulary used in the composition of yoga texts as well as the relatively simple style of the Sanskrit language used in classic yoga texts and tantra-s. After much initial study of some available yoga texts etc., the author was struck by the fact that the seemingly disparate sectarian traditions have remarkably some important common lineage threads and significant epistemological links. These links occur by way of connections with the yoga-based lineage streams historically founded by the historic Adepts and Great Adepts of the 1st., millennium AD.

         However during periods of attendance and service at the hermitages and monasteries of various lineage masters the author was confronted by conventional sectarian insularity even bigotry; a lack of insight and interest in the potentiality of mutual lineage connections and therefore interest in the possibility of greater sectarian interplay. The author was also confronted by sometimes mindless and willfully uninformed devotion both among Indian devotees and western converts.

          Among western devotees these conditions were in part created by language barriers and by anti-intellectualism. These conditions were also aided by the charade of adopting traditional local dress and through attempting to conform to often easily misunderstood Indian and Tibetan cultural conventions often alien to a western upbringing and the western cultural perspective. Among disciples this situation was further compounded by bizarre spiritual elitism; by their ambition and competition and by the continuing connection of some with hard narcotics etc. Sometimes this sense of unreality was increased by the ridiculous, gullible belief in the possibility of all knowing and instantly all resolving guru cults.

            Further this sense of unreality became more apparent because many devotees did not appreciate that the potential fruits of any system of devotion or yoga can only be attained by their own protracted effort from adhering to their accomplished master’s instructions. Protracted, life long effort is certainly the only sure means to harness and transform their given relative mind-set.

           The accomplished master can certainly manifest his ‘grace’ or his insight/wisdom during initiation, consecration and instruction in the details of the given system. Perhaps later through the interplay of the master/disciple relationship, the master can even aid and help the removal of some obstacles in the worthy disciple’s mind-set. But nevertheless the master cannot perform the disciple’s sadhana, 'efficient application' of the method within a given sectarian system.

            Such an efficient, protracted effort is only personally commenced by way of the disciple’s cultivation of bhaktı, sincere devotion to the master; sincere devotion to the chosen deity and to the system of the lineage tradition. Subsequently, in company with devotion and compassion, efficient protracted effort is especially founded upon abhyasa, application, to a given sectarian emanation and yoga system and vairyaga, non-attachment, to all sensory connections and the limiting tendencies of the sensory mind.

           Certainly, as mentioned earlier, contrary to misguided but often popular anti-intellectual, devotional notions, the cultivation of these necessary personal and mental attributes also includes protracted study and deep personal reflection on trends of personal cause and effect. In fact study and reflection on doctrinal concepts is traditionally recommended and is certainly required. Study and informed reflection should be performed to intellectually understand the system and to eventually become self-contained and efficient within a life long regime of application aimed towards the attainment of the intuitive goals of particular sectarian yoga systems.

           Upon initiation and consecration informed stances can allow the opportunity for actual and informed inter-play with lineage masters on the applied details and nature of the graduated systemic approach. Such an informed inter-play can lead to greater confidence in the given applied system and to the eventuality of self-sufficiency to efficiently apply the system. Certainly from the author’s own experience in formative contexts, a lack of authentic study material clearly inhibits the creation of such necessary and informed stances.


           Translations of Hindu yoga and tantric works, often uneven in quality and value, have been performed by 19th., and 20th., century AD., Indian and European translators. These include Sir John Woodroffe, Hara Prasad Shastri and Cintaharan Cakravati etc. Sir John Woodroffe was a 19th., century AD., English, Calcutta High Court Judge who wrote under the nom de plume of Arthur Avalon. Some translations and critical editions of important Shaiva/Shakta tantric works, such as those performed by Sir John Woodroffe are true to the radical but subtle spirit of the refined aspects of Hindu tantra and continue to be of significant value to students.

            However some other translations of Hindu yoga and tantric works are plagued by alien 19th., century, Christian influenced inhibitions regarding radical aspects inherent to these systems. In addition the inability to penetrate coded language, also arcane English or prior ‘spiritualist’ and cult agendas as well an obvious lack of systemic knowledge etc., have made some of these translations clumsy, unnecessarily obscure or even unintelligible.

            But satisfactory translations of some significant works on orthodox yoga and Shaiva and Shakta tantra etc., have been performed by modern western academics such as Alexi Sanderson, Dr., Mark Dyczkowski, Teun Goudriaan, Sanjukta Gupta, Jan Gonda, Indu Menon etc. While appreciating the work of academics in this field the academic approach is more concerned with the historic linguistic implications of these Sanskrit texts.

            Even translations by well known and informed 20th., century AD., Indian scholars of the texts of the Kashmiri Shaiva and Shrı Vidya Shakta schools has been marred by unnecessarily obscure and convoluted English terminology. In reality many of the treatises of the various sectarian traditions mentioned are not works on abstract philosophy, like the dialectical works of the Mahayana schools, but are manuals on ritual, visualization and applied yoga techniques. True to their daily utility texts on emanation and yoga etc., should be approached, interpreted and translated in a similar, straightforward and simple manner.

            There are a number of editions and English translations of Mantrayana root tantra-s that are of some use to practitioners. These published works include various translations from the Tibetan by Lama Kazi Dawa-Samdup under the direction of the editor W.Y. Evan-Wentz. These include the Tibetan Book of the Dead etc.

           Also various published and unpublished works. These works include Professor Snellgrove’s hevajra-tantra; Francesca Freemantle's guhyasamaja-tantra; C. George’s translation of the first ten chapters of the candamaharosana-tantra; S.Tsuda’s selected chapters of the samvarodaya-tantra also G.R. Elder’s four chapters of the samputa-tantra and M.K. Kalff’s selected chapters of the abhidhanottara-tantra. More recently the American Institute of Buddhist Studies has published more editions of translations from Buddhist tantra-s that includes Ms., V. Wallace’s second chapter of the kalacakra-tantra with commentary and David Gray’s heruka-tantra etc.

            Moreover the urgent task of creating critical versions of Mantrayana root tantra-s has been accelerated by the efforts of an Indian/Tibetan research team under the direction of Samdhong Rinpoche based at Sarnath, on the outskirts of Varanasi in northern India.

             This team is creating critical Devanagri versions of selected principal root tantra-s creatively presented together with a commentary, from the collected copies of very rare, extant Sanskrit mss. Despite these efforts nevertheless only a very small fraction of the treatises that actually comprised the vast Sanskrit canon of the tantric Vajrayana/ Mantrayana tradition are available through such critical versions or in translations in a variety of European languages.

             Fortunately this vast canon is preserved to this day in the Tibetan translations found in the multi-volumes of the Tangyur and Kangyur compilations. These works await translation by adventurous western translator/devotees not overwhelmed by the baroque Tibetan theocratic milieu and bold enough to be undaunted by the radical and advanced yoga approach of the Indian Buddhist yogi tradition.


             In a personal attempt to remedy a perceived lack of authentic or clear study material,

the author, together in co-operation with Sanskrit scholar I. Menon entered into interpretive translation projects in a number of sectarian fields. The aim of this whole long term project was to gain an overview of the aims of the tantric, yoga and devotional textural tradition and thereby gain systemic clarity. The project revolved around Sanskrit versions of tantric and yoga works composed within the various Vaisnava, Shaiva, Shakta and Mantrayana Buddhist sectarian traditions.

             After initial forays into mainly ritually orientated works we decided to concentrate upon applied yoga and tantric yoga works. We sought out texts whose subject matter dealt more with the thrust of the overall system of emanation and yoga and dealt in detail with the techniques of concentration.

            We were very interested in the various yoga mudra-s, Seals, the techniques of inner concentration, including the kechari-mudra, the Sky-walking Seal, the yoni-mudra, the Seal of the Source of the Kaula tradition. More especially we were interested with the systems of kundalini-yoga or in tantric Buddhist terms, candali-yoga.

             Since the mid-80's we have co-operated in the translation of a variety of Hindu tantric works. These include the 19th., century AD., Shaktapramoda and yogakarnika; the 18th., century AD., syamarahasyam and tararahasyam and the very informative 16th., century AD., sarvollasa-tantra etc.

        We have also completed translations of some works by the Buddhist/Shakta, Great Adept Matsyendranatha. This Great Adept founded the east India Yogini Kula tantric tradition. These texts include the 10th., century AD., kaulajnananirnaya, as well as the kulananda-tantra, akulavıra-tantra and the jnana-karika etc. The author has also translated part of the khecari-vidya plus other works from the tantric Panca Amnaya tradition including chapters from the kula-arnava-tantra etc.

           We and the author alone, have also translated yoga manuals and texts etc., by Matsyendranatha's chief disciple the Buddhist/Shaiva Great Adept Goraksanatha. These include goraksa-sataka, goraksa-vacana-samgraha etc., and later texts drawn from the Buddhist/ Shaiva textual lineage of the now lost Goraksanatha text, called simply hatha-yoga, including the hatha-yoga-pradipika, siva-samhita and gheranda-samhita etc. We have also translated selected chapters of Abhinavagupta’s tantraloka. As well as a number of other Bengali tantric texts. Also the author has alone translated a number of orthodox yoga texts including the 4th., century BC., yoga-darshana etc.

            I. Menon and the author have also co-operated in the translation two Mantrayana Buddhist yogini-tantra-s of the Annutara class of treatises. We translated the two parts of the 8th., century AD., shrı-hevajra-dakinı-jala-samvara-mahatantra-raja. These two parts were melded together a translation of the commentary the yoga-ratna-mala-nama-hevajra-panjika composed by the 9th., century AD., East Indian Great Adept Krsnacarya.

            These melded translations were published under the title ‘The Concealed Essence of the Hevajra Tantra’.

       We have also translated the twenty-five chapters of the possibly 8th., century AD., shrı-ekallavira-candamaharosana-tantra together with the 11th., or 12th., century AD., commentary, the padmavarti-panjika. This commentary was composed by the possibly Newar mahapandita Mahasukhavajra-pada. We have left out three chapters which deal with mantra activities and offer a selection of 22 chapters from this root tantra together with parts of the melded commentary.

      These translations are featured in an unpublished volume entitled 'The Great Delight of the Candamaharosana Tantra'.


         (g.,) A brief view on the historical situation at the beginning of the 1st., millennium AD., leading to the emergence of the classic tantric yoga and orthodox yoga lineage traditions initially arising within the hill kingdoms of the northwestern region of the Indian sub-continent.


       'The following siddha-s, adepts, are said to have existed in former times, the auspicious Adin›tha, Matsyendra...

                                                                                                                                                       hatha-yoga-pradipika 1.4.

              A main feature in the geography of the greater northwestern region of the Indian sub-continent are the river systems of the upper Indus Valley etc. In addition to the Indus River these river systems are known as the pañca-nad, the ‘five rivers’. Geographically these 'five rivers' are known today as the region of the greater Punjab. Within the forests and fertile plains irrigated by the 'five' rivers the indigenous Indo-Dravidians founded the Indus Valley civilization. 

             By the 3th., millennium BC., Indo-Dravidian the yogı-s of the Indus Valley civilization had possibly refined a system of emanation and yoga inherited from the tribal shaman/yogı-s of the pre-historic proto-Shaiva/Shakta tradition. From artifacts found in the ruins of the cities of this civilization Indo-Dravidian yogı-s had most probably applied a tantric-like yoga system. Their tantric-like yoga method was applied to directly manifest the' nature of particular 'formed' theistic female or male deities. Perhaps some of these adept Indo-Dravidian yogı-s had even developed an more refined view for the application of tantric emanation and yoga that sought to attain the non-dual nature of the formless 'one' deity.

            At the beginning of the 2nd., millennium BC., the peace of the city/states of Indus Valley civilization was disturbed by the nomadic warriors/herders of the 'five' tribes of the Iranian-Aryan-s. The 'five' tribes entered the northwestern region via northeastern Persia/Central Asia. Here the 'five' Iranian-Aryan tribes encountered the forces of the city/states of the Indus Valley Civilization.

             The whole northwestern region including Indus Valley etc., were called by the Iranian-Aryan-s, the Sindhu. From c.1900 BC., within the Sindhu region, the early period of the initial encounter and then the subsequent gradual conquest of the city/states of the Indus Valley civilization commenced. Major western city/states of the Indus Valley civilization fell to the Iranian-Aryan invaders by around c.1700 BC. This occurred with the probable exception of urban centers situated further to the east in the Jumuna River valley as well as those ports situated on the western coastal regions of Gujarat and Saurastra.

            Later, by c.1500 BC., the northwestern and western regions of Indian sub-continent were fully colonized and the Iranian-Ayran-s became the Indo-Ayran-s. Previously when the Iranian-Aryan-s were living in Central Asia etc., the earliest cycles of the then orally transmitted ¸g-veda (RV.,) indicate that early Vedic seers and ascetics had simply employed regimes of psychical austerities or a regime of 'mental medicines', with a view to gaining psychic powers. But in the Indian sub-continent the earlier indigenous tribal shaman/yogı-s and Indo-Dravidian yogı-s employed the yoga view and applied a tantric-like yoga system.

            Following the later colonization of the Sindhu, the lineage of Indo-Aryan priests/ascetics slowly integrated and evolved the framework of the Indo-Dravidian tantric-yoga system. Here elements of the tantric yoga system were gradually adopted by the ascetics from the Indo-Aryan elite 'family' lineages. The early yogı-s from the Indo-Aryan 'family' lineages moved the practice of yoga away from the radical tantric yoga system towards a more orthodox Indo-Aryan style of yoga.

          The trend of adoption, adaption etc., of the Indo-Dravidian tantric yoga system gradually occurred from the end of the 2nd., millennium BC. The tone of this gradual trend was taken by the Indo-Aryan yogi-s following the line set by the ancient Iranian/Aryan seers who had strictly applied regimes of 'austerities'. The trend of updating Indo-Aryan 'applied' methods by means of an 'orthodox' ascetic yoga system can be noted via the early, classic texts of the Upanisad tradition etc.

          At first the orthodox yoga method was applied towards devotion to Vedic elemental deities. Later from the first half of the last millennium BC., devotion and yoga was applied to the Brahminical cosmic male and female deities of the Hindu Trinity having 'form'. Ultimately the goal of the Indo-Aryan orthodox method of emanation and yoga was further refined to realize 'that', the 'formless' nature of the theistic Brahman, 'alone' etc.

         But during the era of colonization etc., the very ancient Indo-Dravidian religious system, based on devotion and tantric yoga, was still existent and continued to evolve independently. By the first half of the 1st., millennium BC., Indo-Dravidian religious system had even managed to break free of the shackles imposed by the royal patronage given to the Indo-Aryan colonial/religious system.

         Popularly, the deities of the indigenous Indo-Dravidian religious system had re-emerged within some of the popular deity cycles of that era. Within these various deity cycles the various ethnic ascetics/yogi-s applied unorthodox or modified, tantric-like yoga systems. These sectarian deity cycles included the ancient, indigenous, non-Vedic deities like Shiva; some indigenous Indo-Dravidian aspects of Visnu as Narayana now appearing within this Vedic/Brahminical deity cycle as well as various ancient tribal forms of the Great Goddess.

          During the last centuries BC., worship and devotion within these unorthodox or independent sectarian cycles by the orthodox and tantric yoga method, was geared by the stages of the ascetic and devotional doctrines of the early Shaiva Pashupata and by the later unreformed Kapalika-like traditions. From this time the tantric-like yoga method was also geared by the Magdhan Kapila's still partly atheistic, unorthodox Samkhya doctrine.

         Also during the middle part of the 1st., millennium BC., the historical Buddha, 'the one who knows', became a seminal yoga adept who applied an independent, purely atheistic view to emanation and yoga. The historical Buddha also hailed from Magdha in the eastern part of the northern region. The monastic lineage founded by the Buddha went on to create a major world-wide religious tradition while still maintaining a some what modified atheistic stance.

        The Buddha's atheistic stance was in part originated from and was allied with the original, atheistic Samkhya doctrine. Here in part the Buddha used Kapila's atheistic Samkhya doctrine to gear and to further develop the atheistic Buddhist doctrinal approach. The atheistic doctrinal approach was seen as necessary in order to express the complete non-dual goal, free from the play of any cosmic or 'personal' deities having 'form'.

         Later the ongoing schisms within the Buddhist Hinayana tradition gave rise to the later expanded doctrinal trends. This expansion of doctrinal and systemic horizons led to the inclusion of the wider esoteric applied doctrinal views drawn from other sectarian groups. The Mahayana tradition applied more complex emanation and yoga methods derived from the orthodox traditions and the later, radical tantric emanation and yoga doctrines of the later Mantrayana yogı tradition were in part based upon the view of the ancient Shaiva/Shakta lineage tradition of northwestern region.

          However the basic goal of the Buddhist ascetic monks as well as tantric yogı-s practicing within the now three, graduated Buddhist traditions was/is to end the personal chain of dualistic, sense-based cause and effect and realize the non-dual consciousness of the buddha-dharma, the Buddha Nature. Under the Buddha's view, being attached to the arising dualistic mental emotional trends only leads to more sense-based cause and effect, delusion and suffering as well as total ignorance of the 'innate' consciousness of non-duality.

         Attachment to this whole train of cause and effect only leads to desire and to degrees of sense-based suffering within relative consciousness. By applying the Buddhist method to bring to an end all dualistic cause and effect, the adept practitioner can possibly achieve the ultimate goal of ending all ignorance of the 'innate' non-dual, consciousness potential. By strictly following the Buddha's method of the actualized, internal union of compassion/ voidness, the nature of bipolar inner 'father' and mother', the ultimate aim of intuitive non-dual knowledge can possibly be attained.

          The overall Buddhist doctrinal view holds that the realization of the transcendent Buddha Nature is ever uncreated, independent of the self of the theistic, cosmic deities and ever released. Under this view the Buddha Nature is always present and even available within the consciousness potential of the finite body/mind. But this potential is normally and generally veiled by the attachment to dualistic relative cause and effect.

            But by following and applying the Buddha's moderately atheistic system of the 'middle way', adept practitioners have the opportunity to realize the unanchored 'release' of non-dual consciousness. The ever present, uncreated non-dual consciousness appears within the union of radiance/resonance as the transcendent, 'one' space-like quantum field.

          The knowledge of non-dual consciousness, the Buddha Nature, is always free of the actions and possible designs of any theistic 'personal' deities as well as the 'self' of all theistic cosmic deities. By successfully applying the Buddha's system, the adept practitioner's body/mind can be fully purified of any and all attachment to the 'unnatural' dualistic consciousness, allowing the sajaha or 'natural' state of non-dual consciousness to be made intuitively evident.


           From the last centuries of the last millennium BC., social/political events played a crucial part with the rise and doctrinal development of the historic orthodox and tantric emanation and yoga tradition. The rise of the historic orthodox and tantric emanation and yoga traditions occurred during the early and middle centuries of the 1st., millennium BC., and is often known as the classic, Tantric Period of Indian religion.

         Although tribal shamanism/tantricism was certainly previously present within all the regions of the Indian sub-continent from the pre-historic era, the origins of the emanation and yoga methods of the classic Tantric Period initially arose or rather re-arose and were evolved within the yogi lineages of the northwestern region etc., of the Indian sub-continent. The origins of refined tantricism during this period arose during the very troubled political times that previously mark the advent of the historical era of Classical India.

          This very troubled political era, marking the initial arising of the classic tantric yoga period, roughly occurred during the period when the Magadhan Mauryan Empire fell in 180 BC., to 318 AD., when the Magadhan Gupta Empire arose. This very troubled political era can be called the 'dark' period of north Indian culture.

           Despite this unappealing description, during the five hundred year 'dark' period the actual framework for the historic, tantric yoga system arose within the northwestern region and was further developed and evolved by being spread by the sectarian yogi lineages throughout the 'five' regions of classical India. By the 5th., and 6th., centuries AD., via the ancient pilgrimage/yogı circuits, the various emanation and radical yoga methods of the various, ethnic sectarian deity cycles of the overall tantric tradition were able to spread and flower within all the regions of classical India.

          But some Indian scholars have called the classical tantric era a debased religious era. Here they state that the Indo-Aryan Vedic socio/religious culture was debased and devalued by the re-arising of the more crude even gross tribal and Indo-Dravidian culture in the wake of the arrival of alien cultures into north India. Certainly during the 'dark' era, the political history of the greater northern region etc., was marked by the ebb and flow of invasions by alien ethnic dynasties and tribes.

         During this period the various local and regional Indo-Aryan kingdoms set within the western region of greater north Indian region fell to these alien dynasties and tribal invasions and the recorded history of these kingdoms are very fragmented. During this ‘dark age’ only sketchy historical records, often in the form of temple inscriptions etc., recount the advent of the invasions and conquests by Central Asian ethnic dynasties and tribes. These invasions and conquests by alien ethnic dynasties, tribes etc., came from the direction of eastern Persia and via the now modern Afghanistan from Central Asia. These sketchy records together with the recorded texts of the Brahmanic Purana textural tradition etc., only give a very unclear or even a biased view of the changing political, social and religious trends of greater north India and how these invasions etc., effected social/religious life.

          During this period the invading ethnic groups and Central Asian tribes included the Bactrian Greeks as well as the Scythian/Shaka-s, Munda-s, Kushan/Kushana-s etc. The Bactrian Greeks and Kushans possessed advanced sedentary cultures and favored the Buddhist approach to religion rather than the elite social/ religious system of the Indo-Aryan-s as applied and hand down since the colonial era of 2nd., millennium BC. But the Scythian tribes also possessed an advanced semi-sedentary culture.

          The movement of ethnic/tribal invasions during this period occurred as a consequence of the ethnic and political chaos already possessing Central Asia. The Bactrian Greeks, the Kushana and even the tribes of the Scythian/Shaka-s etc., were being pressed down into each other's Central Asian territories and then even towards the frontiers of classical India. This pressure came from the protracted chaos then gripping all Central Asian. This prolonged chaos was caused by the tribal migrations of the Huns, the Mongolians etc., living further to the northeast and east. From this protracted chaos was caused by a long period of less rainfall and even drought in the homelands of the Huns etc., and the other socially quite advanced ethnic/tribal groups were impelled by survival to invade and seek conquests within the northwestern and western regions of the Indian sub-continent.

          Each of these organized ethnic/tribal groups went on to create successive, often short lived, regional even multi-regional empires in greater north India during this 'dark' era. During this era these ethnic tribes etc., did contribute to north Indian culture while also being assimilated into the north Indian cultural milieu. But also this was the era when large numbers of Brahmin families started to leave the northwestern and western regions of the Indian sub-continent and migrate along the western coast into South India where they began to fully Brahminize the Indo-Dravidian kingdoms there.


            As mentioned throughout this 'dark' and chaotic period, the history of the northwestern, northern and western regions of greater north India were marked by the ebb and flow of alien invasion and conquest from the west etc. During this era the area of these various Central Asian empires encompassed the Indian northwestern and western regions of greater north India and the trans-Indus provinces normally dominated by the Persian empire as well as provinces extending back into southern Central Asia. However at the end of the initial five hundred year period a more stable political interlude was generated with the rise of the indigenous Indian, Magadhan, Gupta dynasty. During the 4th., and 5th., centuries AD., the indigenous Madaghan Gupta-s re-established a multi-regional empire throughout the northern/central half of the India sub-continent and even beyond. Under the Gupta-s the 'golden era' of Indian civilization occurred.

           After centuries of see-sawing political chaos and alternating alien political dynastic domination the emergence of the Madhadan Gupta dynasty from the 4th., AD., and their subsequent creation of a multi-regional empire, was the catalyst for bringing peace and prosperity to the norther half of the Indian sub-continent. The creation of the indigenous and multi-regional Gutpa Empire led to emergence and flowering of the 'golden age' of classical Indian social/religious culture.

           Despite the emergence of this very significant empire the history of the Gupta dynasty is often unclear and shrouded in myth due to a dearth of historical records. Despite being lauded as the dynasty that paved the way to the classical era of Indian culture there are actually limited references to the Gupta-s in the imprecise and often biased works of the Purana tradition. Passages in the visnu-purana and the bhagavata-purana simply characterize the Gupta-s as being the 'Gupta-s of Magadha'. For the most part the history of the deeds and accomplishments of the Gupta emperors are only known from inscribed pillars, epigraphic inscriptions, copper plate inscriptions and from numismatic evidence.

         Candragupta I., c.318 or 319-328 AD., laid the foundations for the emergence of the Magadhan, Gupta Empire. The emergence and ascendancy of the Gupta Empire put an end to the political chaos that had led to the rise of numerous petty tribal republics and kingdoms both in the northwest, the Punjab, the western region and in the Jumuna/Ganges Valley. This political chaos was a product of the power vacuum generated after the fall of the trans-Indus, Kushana Empire.

        The extent of the Gupta Empire at the time of Candragupta I., included major portions of modern eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar and was therefore sufficient to adopt the prestigious title of maharajadhiraja, ‘great king of kings’. The extent of the Gupta Empire was further increased by Samudragupta who succeeded his father Candragupta I. Possibly after a war of succession Samudragupta ruled from c.330-375 AD.

          Samudragupta is numbered among the four great emperors of classical India. The other three great emperors include Candra Gupta Maurya, Asoka Maurya and Harsa Vadhana who ruled in Kanauj from c.606-642 AD. These emperors carved out and/or ruled with distinction multi-regional empires encompassing the northern half of the Indian sub-continent and beyond even ruling significant portions of the southern portion of the Indian sub-continent.

        Samudragupta’s personality is very interesting in that he was not only a renowned warrior, a great general and conqueror but he was also a great statesman as well as an accomplished musician, poet and playwright. In his drive to unify the fragmented regions of the northern half of the Indian sub-continent and end the tide of alien invasion and rule he applied the twin policies of digvijaya, Violent Conquest/Rule as well as compassionate socially responsible dharma-vijaya, Moral Rule. In this manner through the application of these basic policy strategies Samudragupta emulated and became the equal of the great past Mauryan emperors, Candra Gupta Maurya and Asoka Maurya.

         Under Samudragupta the breadth of the Gupta Empire was extended westwards into eastern Punjab, eastwards into Bengal and Orissa and south into central Deccan. During his reign Samudragupta made the Shaka Ksatrapa-s of the western region his vassals and kept their ambitions in check. However although Samudragupta demonstrated his power to the kingdoms of South India he wisely avoided all out direct conflict with the Vakataka dynasty, that had replaced the Satavahana/ Andhra-s as the paramount power in southern and central India, south of the Narmada River.

            The consolidation of the expanded Gupta empire continued under the short lived Ramagupta and a further period of expansion continued under Candragupta II., c.380-413 AD. The cultural ‘golden era’ of the Gupta-s emerged during the reign of Kumaragupta c.415-455 AD. From this time devotion and worship of the Brahminical Trinity of cosmic deities finally fully emerged and came into flowering in the Middle Country following a millennia long period of deity modification, evolution and philosophical/doctrinal percolation derived from the Indo-Dravidian and Vedic/Brahminical religious milieu.

         The renowned Sanskrit poet and playwright Kalidasha lived during the reign of Kumaragupta and his writings gave an impetus to the renaissance in Sanskrit literature. During his reign Kumaragupta also offered substantial patronage all the religions of north India including the Mahayana Buddhist tradition and the liberal endowment of Buddhist university/monasteries of Magadha.

         However this vibrant period of literary, artistic and religious endeavor was soon overshadowed by the invasion of the northwest and northern regions of the Indian sub-continent by the Central Asian Huna-s. Until their defeat, the Gupta Empire was constantly put under threat by their destructive incursions. This prolonged effort eventually led to the military rise of Gupta feudatories and to the decay and fall of the imperial Gupta-s.

          Throughout the 5th., century AD., the Gupta Empire was confronted, checked and somewhat set back by the invasion of the barbaric Huna-s or White Huns arriving from the Central Asia via the northwestern and western routes. The White Huns were not impressed with Indian caste-based civilization and despite later adopting Shaivism they pillaged the northwestern, northern and central regions of India for more than a century.

         The White Huns were just part of the whole historic movement of Hunish tribes out of Central Asia. The movements of Hunish tribes out of Central Asia towards the west and southeast not only negatively affected the Indian Gupta Empire but similarly negatively affected the Persian and Chinese Empires and even the far off Roman Empire of Europe.

          After the Huns/Huna-s first occupied Bactria and the northern half of Afghanistan, during the latter half of the 4th., century AD., the Huna-s commenced further waves of invasion that via the modern Herat in western Afghanistan moved westwards into the Persian Sassanid Empire. Similarly by the beginning of the 5th., century AD., they advanced over the Hindu Kush sweeping away the last vestiges of Kidarite Kushana power in the Kabul Valley and southeastern Afghanistan.

          Subsequently the Huna-s also moved southeastwards into Gandhara and the Punjab. From here they commenced disruptive and destructive raids and protracted incursions within the sphere of the Gupta Empire. Fortunately the immediate threat of the Huna-s over-running the heart of the Gupta Empire was checked by the military genius of Skandagupta c.454-467 AD.

         However the protracted effort of stemming the Huna tide sapped the vigor of the Gupta dynasty. After nearly a century and a half of destructive marauding in parts of the northwestern, western and northern regions the final complete defeat of the Huna-s occurred around c.532 AD. Here their last influential king Mihirakula was made to grovel at the feet Yasodharman, the king of the Aulikara-s of Malava, the feudatory of the Gupta-s.


            But during a initial five hundred year 'dark' period and later, during the Gupta period etc., the political chaos affecting greater northern region affected the social organization of the various orthodox Indian religions. The political chaos affected government and organized religion within this whole region and the various, hardy and more loosely-formed, regional unorthodox and tantric yogı traditions were given the climate were able to strongly re-arise and then even to flower.

          This flowering of yogi styles and lineage systems etc., especially occurred within the northwestern hill kingdoms of greater Gandhara and Kashmir. Gandhara was long the home of the great university city of Taxila, where the kings etc., of greater north India send their sons to be fully educated. Here within these kingdoms etc., the existing Shaiva and Shaiva/Shakta yogı lineages as well as the newly founded Buddhist tantric yogı lineages arose and flowered.

          The flowering of the various sectarian yogi lineages led to a renaissance in the further development of the unorthodox and tantric doctrinal view of emanation and yoga. In part the cause motivating this renaissance of the ancient indigenous tantric tradition of the northwest came from their ancient tribal and Indo-Dravidian lineage in addition from when these various sectarian yogı-s lineages, especially of the hill areas, were isolated by this long period of political chaos. This period coincided with the emergence of an unusual amount of strong and adept yoga practitioners per generation. Here the historic lineage lines of the siddha-s, adepts and the mahasiddha-s were founded.

            Thereby because of the unusual amount of adept practitioners the unorthodox and tantric yogı lineages of the northwestern region did not wither far from it. Although being isolated from the continuing influences of religious orthodoxy the unorthodox and tantric yoga based lineage traditions of the northwestern region were in fact able to bloom and flower because of this absence. During this 'dark era' of alien ethnic/tribal invasions etc., and after, within the northwestern kingdoms of greater Gandh›ra etc., the lineages of seminal Siddha-s and Mah›siddha-s went on to found the early mixed Shaiva, Shaiva/Shakta and the Buddhist Mantrayana tantric yogı lineage streams.

            The lineages streams founded by seminal Siddha-s and Mah›siddha-s included the tantric Buddhist 'Seven Lineages' and the tantric Shaiva Kashmiri lineage. Other later Shaiva lineages derived from the earlier Pasupatha lineage include the South Indian more or less orthodox Shaivasiddanta lineage and the unorthodox lineages of the more extreme Kapalika-s and Kalamukha-s. Later unorthodox and tantric Hindu lineages include the Shaiva/Shakta 'five handed-down' lineages; the tantric sections of the later Dashnam lineage; the later unorthodox Shaiva N›tha yogı lineage and even the early middle ages Shakta Dashamahavidya lineage etc.

           The full flowering of the tantric sects of the northwestern region allowed the accomplished adept lineage holders to spread the influence of their sectarian yoga and tantric yoga doctrines and be spread these inner doctrines throughout all the regions of of classical India. From the second half of 1st., millennium AD., the flowering and spread of the various sectarian systems of tantra left a lasting impression on the inner approach towards Indian religious devotion as well as on the methods of emanation and yoga of the various applied systems. This impression still lasts even up the modern era.


            Previously within the local or regional kingdoms of the northern region, the ordering of the Indo-Aryan orthodox religious/social tradition and/or the orthodox Buddhist traditions had rested on regal patronage. But during this five hundred year 'dark' era of alien conquest etc., the previously existing political situation of indigenous local and regional kingdoms as well as the more or less fixed order of the caste-based social system stemming from the social order created by the regal patrons of the orthodox Brahmin 'family' religious traditions, had gradually ceased to fully function.

          As has been established, the proto-Shaivism was already well established in the northwestern region since the pre-historic era. During the 'dark' period organized popular religion went back to its indigenous roots in the northwestern hill kingdoms. Here popular religion continued to function by catering to indigenous tribal deities or even alien deities introduced by the new rulers of the kingdoms. Here during the 'dark' era unorthodox Shaivism became a crucial religious force within the development and formation of the yoga and tantric yoga doctrines of classic tantric era.

          During this protracted period of political chaos the mode of the decentralization of yogi lineages allowed the ancient Shaiva/Shakta yoga milieu to gradually re-assert itself from the strictures of the Brahmin caste-based 'family' tradition. This occurred because the popular and especially the ascetic, unorthodox or tantric yoga-based lineage traditions were now more localized and headed by successive generations of adept lineage holders.

        Similarly within the Buddhist yogı situation the cessation of previous regal patronage together with gradual cessation monastic ordination, the influence of the more centralized, monastic Buddhist lineage also somewhat waned in favor of the radical tantric yogi approach. In the northwestern region etc., yogı-s favoring a Buddhist atheistic doctrinal approach were left more and more to themselves.

         From being left to themselves adept Buddhist yogı-s only transmitted the non-popular doctrines of tantric emanation and yoga. These doctrines were limited to the acceptable inner sensibility of yogi disciples and were related to the tantric Buddhist deity cycles ruled by the Buddha-s of Concentration. The early Buddhist tantric doctrines are recorded in seminal tantra-s, treatises, of the Buddhist tantric tradition such as the seminal early 6th., century AD., guhya-samaja-tantra etc. From inferences within Tibetan historical works the tantric yoga lineages were mixed and certainly had adepts and disciples who practiced tantric emanation and yoga by following either a theistic Shaiva line or a atheistic Buddhist line of devotion and yoga.

            Objective Tibetan historians such as Taranatha admit that during the early centuries AD., there was evidence of mixed Shaiva and Buddhist tantric lineages operating within the kingdoms of the northwestern hill region etc. Well known western academic writers on tantra such a Gray and Sanderson have explored the debate concerning the degree in which the Buddhist tantric cycles and the composition of Buddhist tantra-s was influenced by the doctrines of the ancient Shaiva tantric traditions of the northwest. The principle treatises of the Shaiva and Buddhist tantric traditions describe the kind of mantra rites and the emanation and yoga-based systems that had their basis within orally transmitted tantric lineages existing from early centuries AD. Most of these sectarian tantric treatises were composed from the 7th.,  and 8th., centuries AD.

            The Buddhist tantric processes were based upon the inner cultivation of the system of the female, prajña, Wisdom and male, upaya, Means. In the context, such practitioners this system aimed towards the union of these purified natures and attain the ‘natural’ released state within one lifetime. By means of these rites and systems of practice, a tantric practitioner could achieve siddhi, 'success', or rather 'accomplishment' within these particular fields.

            Within tantric Buddhist texts the 'mundane accomplishments' of mantra and related rites in the production and use psychic powers are known as the laukika-siddhi. The 'supreme accomplishment' of emanation and yoga is known as the lokottara-siddhi. The 'supreme accomplishment' is described as union of the bipolar Wisdom and Means or as the inner union of the female Bhagavati/male Bhagavan and is known as advaita or 'non-dual' consciousness.

            But this state of non-duality is ever uncreated, transcendent and is known as the sahaja, 'innate' or the 'natural' state of consciousness. Thereby although the various Shaiva and Buddhist tantric lineages were separated by fundamental views on atheism, no-soul or no individual soul, no-self etc., nevertheless the basic and mutual tantric yoga method was finally only concerned with a formless, non-dual supreme goal, 'alone'.

            From this similar goal, apparently at first, the newly emerging Buddhist tantric yogı lineages were then able existed side by side with a variety of sectarian tantric yogı lineage included the very ancient Shaiva and the Shaiva/Shakta lineages. But later with the spread of various tantric lineages to all the regions of classical India there was intense competition between the unorthodox Hindu and Buddhist tantric lineages for doctrinal paramountcy. Often this competition stemmed from the need to obtain and keep regal patronage etc.


            As mentioned, during the early centuries AD., there was a steady process in the evolution of a distinct Buddhist tantric lineage producing historic and well known adept tantric yogı-s. The rise of the Buddhist tantric lineages occurred from the inter-play with and the further adaptation of the radical systems originating from the earlier pre-historic Shaiva/Shakta tantric yogı lineage traditions.

            The radical applied view of the Buddhist tantric lineage was created from a process of tantric systematic percolation. The process of percolation was under the aegis of the overall Buddhist doctrinal milieu together with the basic emanation and yoga methods at first related to the methods derived from the non-Buddhist tantric yoga traditions.

            From the second-half of the 1st., millennium AD., the Shaiva/Shakta tantric lineages were collectively known in the early Shakta tantra-s as the panca-amnaya, the ‘five’ Orally Handed-down lineage streams. The ‘five orally handed-down traditions' were the creation of the spread of classical tantricism via the pilgrimage/propitiation routes of the 'seats' of the deities. Within the tantric textual tradition the ‘five orally handed-down traditions' were formed by 'five' geographically designated Kula and Yoginı-Kula tantric lineage streams etc.

           Some of the Shaiva/Shakta tantric lineage texts composed within these later ‘five’ traditions still indicate an affinity with the Buddhist tantric Vajray›ya/ Mantray›na lineage and even include the Buddhist tantric tradition within an overall lineage as a ‘sixth’ oral stream. From suggestions within the Kashmir Shaiva/Shakta svaccanda-bhairava-tantra etc., an early lineage affiliation of the Kashmiri Shaiva/Shakta tantric lineage with Buddhist tantric lineage can be established. From Shaiva/Shakta side this lineage affiliation still existing when this treatise was composed during the second half of the 1st.,   millennium AD.

          But according to some later Tibetan historical works the Buddhist yogı-orientated lineage did not historically share any notion of any affiliation with the Shaiva/Shakta lineage. Nonetheless, despite this, the Buddhist tantric lineage did share with the non-Buddhist tantric yogı traditions the outlook of the potential of the mind to realize of non-dual consciousness. The non-Buddhist view was drawn from the direct experiences of non-duality as expressed and taught by the lineages of the Buddhist/Shaiva Great Adepts. These Buddhist/Shaiva Great Adepts include Virupa, Caurangi, Minanatha, Matsyendranatha, Goraksanatha etc.

          Thereby this view of an early lineage affiliation as well as a mutual view is reinforced by the mutuality of orthodox yoga practices and a radical tantric yoga system as well as by similar pilgrimage circuits as were recorded in the various sectarian tantric treatises. This view is further reinforced by the mutuality of shared yogı accoutrements; by the importance of mutual yoga terminology; the basic yogı modes of daily observance and discipline and even by the formation of mantra-s offered to tantric deities etc.

          But still the yoga-ratna-mala in commenting upon the hevajra-tantra 1.1.1., indirectly indicates that the Buddhist systemic/doctrinal tantric approach must always be differentiated from any other non-Buddhist 'orally heard' tantric yoga lineage tradition. This differentiation was marked by following an atheistic doctrinal line etc., and in terms of the unique tantric Buddhist approach of the utpatti-krama, Process of Generation, to viparita, emotional ‘counter-action’ by way of the method of the 'family of deities' etc.

           Here this process was aimed towards the non-existence or void, 'space-like' nature of the deities ruling the equally 'space-like' elements/emotions. While this strict differentiation is no doubt correct in purely applied Buddhist doctrinal terms, the inter-weaving of the Shaiva/Shakta and Buddhist tantric 'streams' by the mixed lineages of the Adept and Great Adept founders of early tantric yoga tradition is certainly again suggested in early Shaiva/Shakta texts. This early inter-connection of applied lineages should not be readily denied by passionate devotees from both camps.


           But purely within the Buddhist tantric context this gradual progression in the separation of the tantric yoga lineages certainly eventually led to the formulation and eventual recording of the distinct Vajrayana/Mantrayana emanation and yoga processes as set out in the early Buddhist 'root' tantra-s. This whole process first occurred in the northwestern region from the latter centuries of the 1st., millennium BC., and on into the early centuries AD.

          At first the radical Buddhist tantric system was only suited to ‘worthy’ practitioners of strong or very strong sensibility. The process of melding, percolation and distillation leading to the ‘authorization’ of monastically acceptable tantric approaches are historically considered by the Tibetan Buddhist tradition to have occurred solely from within the esoteric wing of the Mahayana, monastic Paramita School. Despite this view, the process of evolution towards Buddhist tantricism appears in part to have  occurred through a process of protracted inter-action with the indigenous northwestern Shaiva/Shakta tantric yogı milieu sieved through the stances of the monastic Mahayana tradition.

          Nevertheless despite compelling evidence from the seminal Shaiva/Shakta text, the svaccanda-bhairava-tantra etc., the Tibetan Buddhist tradition adopted as contrary view and does not even contemplate systemic input from non-Buddhist northwestern Shaiva/Shakta yogı lineage streams. The Tibetan tradition simply holds the view that the culminating tantric yogı approach of the Unsurpassable Yoga System was an extension of ‘authorized’ tantric approaches evolved from system of the ‘Perfection of Wisdom’ tradition.

          Here, within the context of Paramita School the three ‘authorized’ monastic tantra-s or systems of peaceful ‘wisdom’ deity cycles, of ‘mantra’ are historically considered as clearly entering into the Mahayana mainstream from the initial efforts of the ‘exalted’ pundit Asanga during the 4th., century AD. Asanga, the founder of Yogacara tradition, was the elder half-brother of the master Buddhist logician and philosopher of the Yogacara School, Vasubhandu (c.316-396 AD.).

         Asanga received consecration into the cycle of Arya Maitreya from the lineage holder acarya Arhat and after twelve years and after many trials eventually manifested the necessary degree of compassion, selflessness and attained the direct vision of this Bodhisattva and gained accomplishment of his mantra. According to Taranatha’s History of Buddhism in India (H.B.I.,) during this era, after the beginning of the period ‘of the spread of the Mah›y›na’ from the 2nd., century AD., the preliminary and intermediate esoteric approaches of ‘mantra’ in terms of the ‘study of the ritual and mantra-s of the kriy› Action, and cary›, Performance tantra-s systems was quite considerable’.

         Certainly T›ranatha suggests that these preliminary and intermediate classes of esoteric systems ‘appeared simultaneously with the Mahayana sutra-s’. However the H.B.I., also indicates that the Yoga and Unsurpassable Yoga systems were not openly ‘prevalent’ at this time. But during the period after the initial ‘spread of the Mahayana doctrine’ some ‘hundred thousand vidy›dhara-s’ or science bearers or adept practitioners of mantra had attained this state by applying the Unsurpassable System in ‘Urgyana’ or rather Uddiy›na. At this time the lineage tradition of the Unsurpassable System; the mode of consecration and even the manner of ritual and the systemic modes of emanation and yoga were kept so secret that ‘outside of the guhya-mantrac›ri-s, teachers of the secret mantra themselves nobody knew who was practicing what’.

          In common with the Shaiva/Sh›kta lineage view this mode of extreme secrecy was upheld in order that ‘they could perform rites and attain siddhi, accomplishment without any difficulty [or obstruction caused by loss of secrecy by talking].’ The only indication that someone was practicing the ‘secret mantra’ was by their vanishing ‘into the sky’ once they had attained accomplishment. In the H.B.I., the lineage holders who consecrated suitable disciples into the ‘guhya-mantra’, secret mantra of the Yoga and Unsurpassable Yoga systems were unknown and are thereby collectively characterized as the ‘guhyapati’, the Secret Lord.

         Thereby at that time ‘nothing in the form of teachings imparted by the master-disciple tradition’ was known by recorded tantra-s. Here this manner of lineage characterization suggests both a strictly oral transmission as well as the possible mixed sectarian approach of the yogı lineage. Apparently the northwestern yogı lineage was still in a stage of ongoing doctrinal distillation and sectarian transition.

        Significantly T›ran›tha only commences the lineage of the Unsurpassable Yoga System with Saraha and Nagarjuna the younger, who are characterized as ‘father and son’ of the lineage transmission, and not with R›ja Indrabhutı snr., of Oddiyana. In other Tibetan historical works R›ja Indrabhutı snr., of Oddiyana is understood to have commenced the historical lineage of the guhya-samaja-tantra (GS.T.,). His omission here could suggest that Indrabhutı snr., was considered as a lineage holder of a mixed sectarian and purely oral yogı tradition.

         Conceivably the preceding oral lineage of the later recorded Unsurpassable Yoga System was up to this point transmitted without any strict sectarian orientation or even in terms of theistic or atheistic vista. Certainly according to Taranatha no teacher before Saraha transmitted the ‘anuttara guhya-mantra’ the Unsurpassable Secret Mantra by way of the systems found in later recorded Buddhist tantric texts.

        Taranatha confirms that ‘the profound Yoga and Anuttara Tantra-s...appeared gradually’ as the deity cycles of the Unsurpassable Yoga class were over time ‘separately obtained by different siddhacararya-s, accomplished instructors...’. In many instances particular deity forms also the texts and instructions of the ‘wisdom’ deity cycles of this class were initially ‘obtained’ by adepts through a divine vision and by ‘direct’ revelation.


          As suggested a longterm breakdown of monastic infrastructure perhaps facilitated an already ongoing process of the fusion of basic orthodox Buddhist doctrinal positions with the applied outlook of the ancient northwestern Shaiva/Shakta tantric tradition, that apparently led to the emergence and flowering of the Buddhist tantric approach in the hill kingdoms of the northwest.

         From Tibetan historical sources both the less radical systemic approach as well as the radical systemic approach of the anuttara-yoga-tantra, the Unsurpassable Yoga System of the Vajrayana /Mantray›na tradition were originally formulated in the hill kingdom of Oddyana/Uddiyana. The hill kingdom of Oddy›na/ Uddiy›na formed part of the ancient kingdom of Gandh›ra.

          Gandh›ra was comprised of the modern western Punjab as well as of land on the plains to the west of the Indus River including valleys in the foothills of the western extension of the Himalayas, the Karakoram Range. Within Gandh›ra the hill kingdom of Urgyan or Oddyana/Uddiyana was probably centered in the Swat River Valley and included other neighboring river valleys nestling in the foothills of the Karakoram Range.

         By being situated west of the Indus River Oddyana/Uddiyana actually lay outside of the ancient political boundary of the Indian sub-continent considered to formed by this river. Certainly the northwestern region was a cultural crossroads where trading routes from Persia as well as pack routes into Central Asia and the Tarrim Basin joined the principal trading arteries into northern India. Thereby the Buddhist tantric tradition may well have been subject to doctrinal influences not only from the ancient indigenous Pasupata/Shaiva tradition of the northwestern region of classical India but also even by influences from Central Asia by way of the inflow of shamanism and Taoism via the Silk Road.

         Central Asian influences were later evident within the root text and commentary tradition of the tantric Buddhist cycle of the kala-cakra-tantra (KC.T.). Within the collections of basic efficient applied emanation practices found in the sadhanamala (SM.,), the origin of the six approaches in the propitiation of the goddess Ekajatı, a particular form of Ugratara, Wrathful Tara, are said to have been discovered in the country of Bhota, Tibet, by the Great Adept Nagarjuna during the 7th.,., century AD.

         Despite some problems with the dating and even of the discovery of these deity cycles in Tibet, actually the Central Asian origins of the goddess Tara seem quite likely. Remarkably a portion of the visualization technique of Ekajatı found in the SM., exactly corresponds to that for the goddess Mahanılasarasvatı, also known also Nilatara, found in the later Hindu Shakta phetkarini-tantra.

        However Dr. Bhattacharya who edited the Mantray›na SM., a compendium of short efficient modes for the application of emanation techniques, for some reason confuses Oddyana/Uddiyana with the classical land of Odra or a portion of the modern state of Orissa, located on the Bay of Bengal. He thereby holds the opinion that Oddyana/Uddiyana was located either in this modern eastern coastal region or even possibly further to the northeast in Assam.

         In contrast Dr., Pramodh Bagchi completely disagrees with Bhattacharya and upholds the view of the northwestern location of Oddyana/Uddiyana. Dr., Pramodh Bagchi convincingly argues that Bhattacharya’s view is clearly based upon faulty geographical assumptions derived from a confused linkage of Oddyana with Odra as well as by disregarding historical accounts left by Chinese pilgrims.

        Bagchi indicates that the Chinese T’ang annals delineate the boundaries of Oddyana/ Uddiyana. These annals indicate that this hill kingdom was certainly placed within the northwestern region. These annals indicate the boundaries of Oddyana/Uddiyana are formed with ‘India [the lower Indus Valley]...on the south, Citral...on the northwest [on the frontier of modern Afghanistan] and it [the kingdom of Angakostha] is situated to the north of the Indus [River Valley]’.

        According to the Chinese pilgrim Fa-hien, who commenced a pilgrimage to India in c.399 AD., via the Central Asian route, the road to Oddyana/Uddiyana ' lay on the western side of the Indus'. The later Chinese pilgrim Huien-tsang, who commenced a pilgrimage to India in c.629 AD., traveled from Purusapura/Pushkalavatı, the modern Peshawar, situated on the extreme northwestern plains on the western side of the Indus, 'to Oddyana'.

         Further M. Foucher in his work Iconographic Bouddhique, includes a reproduction of an 8th., or 9th., century AD., Nepalese drawing of a miniature of Vajrapanı bearing the inscription ‘Vajrapani of Mangakostha in Oddyana’. Mangakostha or the Chinese Mong-kie-li, is an alternate name for Mangalapura, known to be the principal town/city of the Swat Valley during the classic tantric era.

         Confirming that Oddyana/Uddiyana was a prime center and haven for the Mahayana/Mantrayana traditions located in the hill valleys of the Karakoram Range, Sung-yun states that 'the sounds of Buddhist bells were heard during the whole night and filled the valleys of Oddyana'. Sung-yen, who accompanied by the monk Hwei-sang commenced a pilgrimage to India in c.518 AD., resided in Oddy›na for two years collecting Mahayana texts. But because of the threat still posed by marauding White Huns from Central Asia Sung-yen did not actually proceed from there further into northern India.

           Other significant Buddhist hill kingdoms between Oddyana/Uddiyana and Kashmir included the kingdom of Zahor whose capital was Lankapurı. Jayabhadra the adept pundit/translator is understood to have come from Zahor. Jayabhadra translated the cakra-samvara-mula-tantra (CS.MT.,) into Tibetan and who also composed a significant commentary on this cycle, the cakrasa˙vara-vivrti, that is extant in the Sanskrit medium. By the 6st., century AD., Huian Tsang indicates that a ‘hundred monasteries’ containing up to ‘6000 monks’ following both the Hinay›na and Mah›y›na traditions were located in the environs of Lankapurı or more probably throughout the small hill kingdom of Zahor.

           (h.) The deha-vada, the Doctrine of the refined, divine Body that is common within all sectarian yoga and tantric yoga traditions.


          ' No other jewel in no other location is so great as the svadhistana, One's Own Abode. Once purified by the Innate Radiance [generated through the unification of the centers of the Body, Speech and Mind] it [the body] is like a gem purified with fir

                                                                        guhya-samaja-nidana-karikah (GSNK.) 40.


          The Vedic/Sanskrit term ‘tantra’ was first associated with folk craft of ‘weaving’ and the modus operandi performed by the wooden machinery of weaving, the 'loom' together with the sutra, the 'thread'. Later the term 'tantra' became used by the late Vedic/Brahminical tradition as a negative descriptive term to indicate the gross or the simply deceiving approach of indigenous tribal 'folk magic' and/or the negative rites mantra powers etc. Malicious mantra activities were performed by the recitation and the offering mantra rites etc.

       In the orthodox Vedic/Brahminical tradition the term 'tantra' was also negatively used to describe the ancient Indo-Dravidian system of emanation and yoga. But here the term 'tantra' can refers to the radical but refined emanation and tantric yoga system that emphasizes the approach off the 'middle' nerve. The refined tantric approach efficiently employes the finite body/mind to their full.

      The doctrinal concept of the deha-vada, the Doctrine of [the refined, divine] Body expresses this fundamental tantric yoga and tantric yoga system in terms 'middle' nerve approach. The ancient Indo-Dravidian approach to the 'middle' nerve was internally offered towards operating the mind and body at an efficient optimum degree. In the Buddhist tantric tradition the finite body/mind can also be known as the yantra, the natural ‘machine’ etc.

      Historically the Doctrine of the Body underpins the overall emanation and yoga systems of the orthodox and tantric yoga method of the 'middle' nerve approach. However, the refined but sometimes radical tantric system of the 'middle' nerve approach should never be confused with the inimical mantra activities of some aspects within the totality of the historic tantric tradition nor be confused with the modern so-called neo-tantric methods surrounding the pleasure of gross eroticism.

        Within 'real' yoga and tantric yoga systems, the altruistic goals of these systems can be only achieved by the full purification of the 'middle' or central nerve. The other more gross 'applied' avenues of the overall tantric tradition are the approaches of the 'left' and the 'right' nerves. Or rather the 'nerves' where the secondary, lesser goals of mantra activities can be achieved.

       Here the 'left' and 'right' nerves, must also be purified by the breath/wind yoga techniques etc. Then these principle secondary nerves, that emanated downwards from the nose etc., can be used in the various rites involving in the outer emanation of tantric seed mantra-s etc. These rites are known as the so-called sat-karma-s, the Six Activities of mantra. But here only the altruistic goal of the Doctrine of the Body involving the purification and harnessing of the 'middle' nerve etc., will be discussed and briefly defined.

          Despise the somewhat contradictory doctrinal views of theism and atheism, the tantric yoga systems of Shiva/Shakta Kashmir tradition and the Shakta Kaula traditions as well as the Buddhist Mantrayana traditions apply a somewhat similar 'middle' emanation and yoga approach.

     The quotation from the Buddhist GSNK., heading this section, highlights and expresses the vista of the culmination of the tantric emanation and yoga method of the 'middle' approach. The Buddhist Mantrayana tantric system of the 'middle' approach is centered on the hearts of the spinal centers of the Body, Speech and Mind. These three centers are set on the purified central or 'middle' nerve of spinal column etc.

         Both within the Yogini Kula and Mantryana traditions, the inner symbolic terms of the male bhagavan, the One in Possession of the Womb [/source] and the female bhagavati, the One Possessing the Womb [/source] are the bipolar, inner archetypes/actors within the inner 'erotic drama in yoga'. These are male/female aspects or in the Buddhist tantric context the female, Wisdom and the male, Means etc. Aspects of these inner archetypes/actors can represent the purified inward and outward breath etc; the bipolar aspects of the winds as well as the two principle, 'sun' and 'moon' spinal centers etc.

         The 'erotic drama in yoga', or inner emanation and yoga 'weaving', attempts to bring into union the cultivated aspects and pure natures of these bipolar deity archetypes with non-dual 'source'. Here and also even within the the orthodox Vaisnava yoga tradition, the 'source' of these two unified bipolar deity archetypes, represents the microcosmic/macrocosmic non-dual nature that is uncreated and ever present to 'cloth' the fully purified finite body/mind with transcendental knowledge.

        During this inner 'erotic drama of yoga' the various inner aspects of these archetypes have to be progressively melded by way of the processes. Once purified, harnessed and channelled these aspects of the inner actors, the participants within inner 'erotic drama in yoga', are maintained in 'union' within the 'middle' nerve, so that the mental stages concentration and then of the samadhi-s, the Stabilized Meditative States can potentially arise leading to the arising of uncreated 'source' of non-dual consciousness.


         After appropriate degrees of consecration and instruction by the lineage master, the ripened, mature yoga or tantric yoga practitioner can consider that the finite body/mind is the self-contained field. As mentioned within this self-contained field the process of emanation and yoga are applied to unveil the 'source' of transcendental non-dual consciousness which is ever microcosmically/macrocosmically present and 'clothes' all the elements of creation and beyond.

        This view is in contrast to some Indian and non-Indian devotional traditions that are limited and orientated to the externalized, dualistic propitiation of theistic deities etc. But mastery of the finite body/mind by way of orthodox yoga and tantric yoga emanation and yoga processes can potentially lead to the purification of the previously mentioned inner yoga components; the re-focusing of consciousness away from dualistic cause and effect and the possible intuitive manifestation of non-dual knowledge.

      A foremost tantric text of the Kaula, Yoginı Kula tantric tradition, the kula-arnava-tantra (KAT.,) emphasizes in 1.11-12., the unique nature of the human body. Here this text, composed during the early centuries AD., from oral origins, introduces the general basis for the deha-vada, the Doctrine of the Body, by stating:

        ‘ Of the eighty-four hundred thousand [types] of physical form [within this world], the human body is the most important because it is this form where one [the practitioner] can gain [direct] knowledge of the essence.

        ‘ This knowledge of the essence cannot be attained in any other physical form other than in the human form [because of its consciousness potential] ’.

        The KAT., continues in this vein and echoes the later Tibetan tantric tradition’s outlook of the necessity for individuals to apply themselves wholeheartedly to an ‘experiential’ emanation and yoga system. The KAT., infers that a refined tantric system can save individuals from the cause and effect consequences of suffering and later in the after-life, from hell. These consequences are caused by attachment to the dualistic trends of the sensory mind; by desire and sinful action as well as from ignorance of the consciousness potential of the finite body/mind.

         KAT., 1.15-16., further states:

         ‘ Endowed with the human form as a ladder for liberation, if the individual does not [seek to attain] the liberation of the soul/self, then who can be a greater sinner...

        ‘ No creature in any other physical form than the human form can pursue the higher goal of life [in this planetary context]. Therefore endowed with the precious wealth of a human body one should perform virtuous actions [to create a positive cycle of cause and effect necessary to meet an adept master as well as being suitable to receive consecration and instructions].’

        Thereby in terms of the pursuit of the intuitive, 'natural' knowledge of the transcendent non-dual radiance/resonance, the ripened, mature tantric yoga practitioner is essentially self-reliant and self-contained. By being self-contained during the processes of purifying and cultivating the perceptive potentiality inherent to the finite body/mind, the mature yogı can have the chance to finally realize the goal of non-dual knowledge.

           In this sense KAT., 1.21., states:

          ‘ If the individual himself does not seek to find the means for release for the soul/self who else is there to seek the means favorable for the release?’

          In contrast with the outwardly orientated devotional systems and the sacrificial systems of Brahminic Hinduism etc., the esoteric Doctrine of the Body maintains that the location for the application of the inner 'erotic' metaphor guiding the tantric 'middle' yoga approach should be simply pursued within the field of the finite mind/body.

         In this respect, the 14th., century AD., the shiva-samhita, a yoga manual of the later unorthodox, Shaiva Natha yogı tradition, states in 2.1-4 that:

        'In this body mount Meru, [the spinal column] is surrounded by seven islands [the seven spinal centers]. There are rivers [the yoga nerves], oceans [the space-like astral realms], mountains [there the deities abide] as well as the Lords of the [deity] fields.

        ' In the body there are seers and sages as well as all the stars and planets. There are sacred pilgrimages, shrines and the presiding deities of the shrines.

        ' The sun and moon, the agents of creation and destruction [as the aspects of the bipolar breath] move within the body. [The elements] of ether, air, fire, water and earth are also there.

         'All [the natures of six types of] beings that exist in the Three Worlds [or spheres] are also to be found in the body[/mind]. [All these spheres, beings etc.,] are surrounding the Meru and are engaged in their respective functions'.

        In this way the fundamental inner, bipolar doctrinal approach centers on the means to achieve purity and harness the 'middle' nerve of the spinal column. Attaining purity and harnessing the 'middle' nerve is necessary to mentally operate and conscious of the inner activities of the bipolar yoga components. From this, the efficient, mature practitioner appreciates that the impermanent body/mind, generated from gross cause and effect, can eventually be a medium for the experience of differentiated consciousness and even the experience of transcendent, 'one' macrocosmic/microcosmic field situated within the sphere of consciousness, uniquely present within the 'middle' nerve.

         By 'sealing' consciousness within the 'middle' nerve and by being pervaded with the realization of the unique potentiality of the unified, divine radiance/resonance, the microcosmic finite human body/mind can consciously mirror the ultimate experience of transcendental, non-duality.

       From this direct experience the yogı realizes that the 'source' of the transcendent 'one' is always impersonally present both within the individual microcosm as well as the macrocosmic universe and beyond. Here the adept yogi has the chance to realize that the stages of radiance/resonance; the 'great life breath' and the unconditioned nature of the 'one' divine can be consciously intuited by sucessfully applying the 'middle' nerve approach of emanation and yoga.

        As already mentioned the tantric yoga system of the 'middle' approach is based the internal vista of the 'erotic drama in yoga' and the inner union of the inner female and male archetypes/actors. This erotic metaphor is based upon a system of yoga spinal centers made aware by way of the union of the bipolar breath; the union of the two main winds and principle three yoga nerves etc. The union of these inner components and the bipolar archetypes, by way of success in applying the processes of emanation and yoga, can lead to the unfolding of the undifferentiated nature of the principle 'middle' nerve etc.

         However for the most part the theories of 'middle' tantric approach are mostly dismissed out of hand by modern scientists and religious researchers. But even if these theories are examined they are simply viewed as being a primitive approach to understanding the working of the central nervous system etc.

       Further and remarkably, the existence and significance of the activities of the inner electromagnetic energy of the prana or vayu, the winds, crucial within the theoretic 'middle' approach of tantric yoga, still remains unrecognized or is readily dismissed within modern science and medicine as being primitive, gross etc. The same can said of a similar harnessing of the 'chi' within the Taoist yoga-like system.

       Therefore the various but comprehensive bipolar orthodox and tantric emanation and yoga systems based on the approach to the 'middle' nerve and geared by the 'erotic' inner weaving and melding of these aspects of the yoga components, is readily dismissed by modern science and more especially by non-Indian devotional religion.

      However, under the theories of yoga the significance of the system of spinal centers; the significance of yoga nerves and winds etc., clearly hinges upon applying the purifying techniques of the breath, central within yoga theories of orthodox and tantric emanation and yoga. The utility of the purified degrees of impersonal perception arising from successfully applying these yoga methods to harness the winds etc., mostly remains unknown to believe and faith-based, non-Indian devotional religion etc.

         But yoga theory of the 'middle' nerve approach fully accepts and posits the harnessing and utilization of the aspects of the bipolar breath in conjunction with the electromagnetic energies of the winds etc. Once these purified bipolar inner components etc., are coupled and melded with the gathered bio-kinetic energy of the pent-up libido they can awake the generally latent kundalini-shakti, the 'coiled-up energy/capability', the life force.

         Therefore utility of the tantric processes of the 'middle' nerve approach are certainly in terms of ascertaining the efficient use and the consciousness potential of the finite body/mind with the aim of awakening the coiled-up energy/capability of the life force etc. When the spinal column of the body is purified and harnessed, the body/mind is then considered as potentially being a microcosmic transmitter/ receiver within and with the various gross and subtle astral realms of the macrocosm.

            Under the tantric theory of the 'middle' nerve approach, individually and as a unified aggregate the four main spinal centers etc., can upon purification potentially offer intuitive experience of various macrocosmic realms. These can include the various astral realms of the 'chosen' deities with 'form' as well as the absolutely unconditioned, 'formless' state of total 'release' or liberation.

             Explanatory treatises of the Buddhist Mantrayana textual tradition, such as the samvara-ottara-tantra (SO.T.,) etc., clearly indicate that the purified nerve circuits and the purified complexes of spinal centers present within the finite ‘Meru’ are considered as being reflections of the nature of subtle astral deity realms and beyond. But these astral spinal realms are in accord to the master's deity lineage tradition and the resonance of the given lineage mantra-s.

        According to the lineage system and the lineage mantra-s there are different and various 'chosen' bipolar deities of 'form' which can have macrocosmic deity astral realms linked to the purified spinal centers etc. From re-focusing and re-tuning the finite mind/body, the efficient yoga practitioner can perhaps intuitively attain and experience the different stages of radiance/resonance relating to various astral spheres of the bipolar male/female deities of 'form' and their male/femake retinue.

        These spheres of the 'chosen' male/female deity cycle are microcosmically linked to individual spinal centers. But the unique system of spinal centers are potentially capable of even more subtle experience than simply accessing the spinal, astral bipolar deity spheres.

      In the very advanced stages of yoga, upon the attainment of total unity of the spinal centers; the purified and unified spiral centers of the microcosm can be potentially linked to the non-dual consciousness of the unconditioned 'space-like' or 'formless', release, 'alone'. The nirvana, the 'release', is transcendent and beyond any and all the deity astral realms etc., of the gross and subtle macrocosm.

           Via the unified centers of the spinal column, the fully accomplished practitioner has the possible inner link to the 'space-like' source of the quantum field in addition to the inner links encompassing all the possible astral realms of the gross and subtle macrocosm. Here within the charged resonance generated by the inner efforts of the adept practitioner he/she can possibly make astral voyages etc., to the planets and to the astral realms etc., of gross and subtle macrocosm or even become a medium for expressing the radiance/resonance of the formless, transcendental 'one' consciousness of the quantum field within the sensory world.

           The stages of the processes leading to radiance/resonance of the unified spinal centers can be revealed from consecration by the adept lineage holding master and by the teachings and instructions regarding the bipolar deity components and their melding during the 'erotic drama in yoga'. Following the instructions etc., offered by this metaphor, the attainment of the Yoga of the Winds can lead to the total purification of the bipolar breath etc. Accomplishment in this advance yoga process can manifest as ‘secret fire’ of the life force etc., etc.

        Again it must be stressed that these possible goals can only be effected from awakening and correctly channeling the normally latent or coiled-up energy/ capability of the life force into the 'middle' nerve. Thereby the ultimate attainment only comes from intuitively making apparent the stages of processes of emanation and yoga and from unifying of the radiance/resonance inherent to the purified and unique spinal centers of the body. Accomplishment in these processes makes to finite body/mind of an adept practitioner to be the fit vessel of the uncreated radiance/ resonance.

      Thereby after leaving behind the goals of tantric 'folk magic' and the outer effects of the mantra sciences, the 'real' goal of the refined orthodox and tantric yoga doctrine centers on the inner exploration of consciousness. By this exploration of consciousness an heroic yogi can possibly seek to attain the non-dual, microcosmic/ macrocosmic consciousness. Despise being geared by either theistic or atheistic doctrinal concepts, this is the goal of the refined aspects of the unorthodox/tantric Kashmir Shaiva tradition, the tantric, Kaula, Yoginı Kula tradition as well as the  tantric Buddhist Mantrayana tradition.

      But as mentioned the view of the refined orthodox and tantric yoga traditions is divided over whether the advaita, or non-dual consciousness potential, should be understood in terms of theism or atheism. Here a question should be asked: Does tat, 'that', the impersonal, transcendental divine 'source' of the  uncreated non-dual nature, underlay the nature of the bipolar deities of 'form' etc? The Buddhist tradition would give the answer that even the bipolar deities of 'form' rely and arise within the uncreated  non-dual nature.

        Whether seen under the view of theism or atheism the view of the refined tantric yoga lineages hold that the 'one' factor is uncreated and is 'that' which underlies and permeates the microcosm as well as macrocosmic matter, 'space' and beyond etc. This 'one' transcendent factor underlies all cosmic material elements and even the very atoms and sub-atomic particles, black matter etc., of the individual finite body/mind. Here individual human beings all have this consciousness potential that is innate while the finite body/mind lives.

        For yogi-s the body/mind can act as a finite medium to inwardly explore and consciously manifest the stages towards revealing the transcendent nature of 'that' or the microcosmic/macrocosmic non-dual factor etc. But when the body 'dies' or returns to its constituent elements, the underlying 'one' transcendent factor, 'that'. is unchanged and is ever transcendently present. Thereby it would be completely wrong to assume that knowledge of that transcendent 'one' factor can simply linked from the transitory, finite body/mind.

    But the finite body/mind is ever permeated, 'clothed' by 'that' as the normally concealed transcendent 'one' factor. This 'one' factor, 'that', can be directed realized by adepts of orthodox and tantric yoga. Thereby all the refined yoga traditions hold that after the purification of consciousness, humanity do have the potentiality to realize, 'that', the 'one' transcendent divine factor.

    In this way 'that', the uncreated, non-dual unity of the divine radiance/resonance is ever transcendent and is not involved in the processes of material cause and effect nor in the biological process leading to the creation of the finite body/mind. But 'that' as the uncreated transcendent unity is nevertheless 'innate' to all finite bodies etc., because the divine nature of the non-dual 'one' consciousness permeates all finite bodies and spheres etc. The sahaja, the 'innate natural' consciousness is 'that', the non-dual divine factor or rather the radiance/resonance of the 'great life breath' of the universe. This melded nature of radiance/resonance is the 'everlasting life' of the other non-Indian, theistic traditions etc.

         Here the uncreated non-dual unity, characterized as melded divine radiance/ resonance, can only be considered as the impersonal transcendent factor underlying the elements etc., of the body/mind. From a dualistic point of view this means that the very rare experience of 'divine unity' by the yoga adept can occur while the adept still exists within material/sensory 'diversity'.

         But this impersonal 'innate nature' or the 'natural state' of consciousness of 'that' should not be just confined and conveyed way of popular devotional religious concepts, beliefs etc. Ultimately the existence of the transcendent 'one' nature should be known directly by the individual heroic practitioner. Here the transcendent 'one' nature of 'that' should be intuitively realized by way of svasamveda, 'direct personal experience' from attaining the innate non-dual consciousness.

      The non-dual 'natural' consciousness of 'that' is always free of any and all dualistic sensory cause and effect. But non-dual consciousness potential is normally veiled by individual sensory cause and effect etc. Here relative or 'unnatural' mind is always ruled by the cause and effect of sensory, emotional attachments that are the cause of suffering and ignorance, as well as by the dualistic delusions of social 'reality' and sole religious 'truth' .

    The inward 'applied' esoteric emanation and yoga tasks aimed towards 'that' can only be made apparent only after thoroughly re-focusing the mind flow of consciousness. The thorough re-focusing of the mind is set by way of success in the refined stages of tantric emanation and yoga. By these processes a thorough re-focusing can occur which will then thoroughly turning consciousness away from the vista of attachment or of the dualism inherent to the 'unnatural' relative mind.


         The prime goal of the tantric 'middle' approach clearly hinges on intuitively making apparent the divine nature and radiance/resonance of the 'formless' quantum field. Thereby, the goal of the applied system of tantra is not primarily geared towards outer propitiation or even absolute reliance upon the externalized intervention of personified female and male deities.

           The advanced and the adept yogı must become self-reliant by application to the lineage system leading to altruistic accomplishment of the internal orthodox or tantric yoga system. This is certainly the case with the 'middle' approach despite the later obsessions within the Brahminized regional tantric traditions towards offering overly complex outer propitiatory rituals.

          Also this equally the case, despite the historic obsessions of the 'folk' traditions of tantra with the performance of other more inimical rites seeking to propitiate external deities of 'form' in order to have mastery over the psychic powers and the activities accruing from mantra recitation.

       But an efficient practitioner of tantric 'middle' approach to emanation and yoga has to initially chose and decide that is main task of emanation and yoga is to access the energy/capability of the life force etc., rather than being mired in the relatively easier quest for mantra powers. This quest just gives more negative cause and effect because the mind of the practitioner is still not purified.

          Here within the 'middle' approach the tantric yoga practitioner must first clear and purify the mind of the limiting veils of primeval elemental/emotional conditioning and the deluding vista of personal sensory tendencies and actions. The veils of primeval elemental/emotional sensory conditioning etc., are like ocean foam that in a constant strong gale forms a veil over wind-tossed waves.

        Here this mental veil is formed by the non-purified mental resonance of the elements that supports and continually holds up the mental natures, traits and habits of the arising, impure emotions. By the support of impure elemental resonance and from the daily habits of the emotional natures and their allied tendencies and traits etc., the individual and even the immature yogı is held fast within the illusions and delusions of dualistic, personal states of sensory consciousness etc.

         But the refined yoga theories of the tantric 'middle nerve' approach opine that the consciousness potential offered by the finite body/mind can be quite logically considered as the prime field of yoga endeavor and inner activity. Here the field of the body/mind has to be cultivated, disciplined, purified by the emanation and tantric yoga processes. Thereby under the 'middle' tantric approach to emanation and yoga the conscious potentiality offered by the disciplined, re-focused body/mind must always be considered above all else.

            However, the perceptive limitations of the senses and the ever ‘arising’ cycles of emotionally driven desire, do in general hide the potential for an intuitive appreciation of these unique, inherent stages towards radiance/resonance. For ordinary individuals the outer relative world is totally real after by being conceived through the imperfect medium of the senses and the limited sensory/relative mind.

         But from deliberate and protracted effort within the finite body/mind the potential stages towards the aspects of radiance/resonance can be made apparent. Thereby the graduated tantric, 'middle' approach of tantric emanation and yoga offers the potentiality to purify and harness the gross and subtle bipolar components of the body.

          A mentioned earlier these components to be harnessed and mastered include the bipolar aspects of the breath or rather the inner bipolar sources of the in and out breaths; the circuits of yoga nerves, the principal two the winds etc. The harnessing and mastery of these components etc., is attained only after first cultivating sympathy, mercy, compassion etc., as well as devotional love for the master, the lineage etc., and from a thorough detachment from the tendencies of the senses and the ‘arising’ mental drives of sensory cause and effect.

        This whole process of detachment from the tendencies of the senses is first gradually attained by initially building a foundation of moral and ethical discipline. This foundation can calm the emotionally tossed mind. Then in conjunction with application to the orthodox or tantric system of purifying emanation techniques, the normal but 'unnatural' emotional and sense orientation of the mind can be gradually re-focused and re-directed.

          These techniques can slowly re-focus the mind towards the intuitive appearance of the undifferentiated mind stream and away from habitual attention being paid to the differentiated ‘arising’ emotional tendencies and traits of the limited sensory mind stream. Mastery of emanation techniques that can generate ‘mental asceticism’ and allow an habitual tendency towards focus on the initial states of undifferentiated mind flow. From the cultivation 'mental asceticism' allows the safe application of the actual stages of yoga that include postures, application to breath restraint in company with the bonds, seals etc.

          Eventually from careful, protracted and very arduous effort, the totality of the system of emanation and yoga can potentially lead to the awakening of the energy/capability, the ‘secret fire’. Once awakened and correctly channeled within the 'middle' nerve the ‘secret fire’ together with linga, the 'characteristic' of the primeval mantra, can burn with bliss/joy all mental obstructions.

           From this purification the potentially to make apparent the realms of the deities of 'form' located within the spinal centers of body become apparent etc. Further the ultimate radiance/resonance of the non-dual quantum field can only be attained by the conscious union of the spinal centers. This final purification of the 'middle' nerve of the body/mind comes from unification of these centers. Then this unification mirrors the 'natural' consciousness of the non-dual state.

         Clearly upon harnessing the actually ‘non-personal’ energy/capability in company with the attained the resonance of the primeval mantra, the efficient yoga practitioner does not really need to resort to the external ritual or propitiation of deities in shrines and temples etc. In this fully esoteric context images and symbols clearly only have a relevance and utility to suggest the inner means. Advance dualistic devotion by these means, the body/mind of the devotee is in touch within the underlying quantum field and can see the object of 'chosen' devotion as well as the nature of 'all things' by way of the realization of the inherent samarasa, the 'flavor of essential similarity'.


           Without seeming to cognize the ever-present, natural 'one mind' all individuals are held fast by ignorance within the unnatural, delusive sensory mind. Here and despite the conflicting doctrines of theism and atheism, in order to re-focus the mind a 'worthy' Hindu, Sh›kta tantric yoga practitioner will first resort to the emanation techniques etc., of the kadi-mata process. Similarly for the Buddhist tantric yoga practitioner they will resort to the emanation techniques etc., of the Process of Generation.

        Once the emanation techniques etc., are gradually and successfully some applied 'mental asceticism' can be achieved. Here the focus of the sensory mind can become malleable and undifferentiated. With the habit of undifferentiated mind, the task of fully undoing the veil of ignorance towards directly appreciating the nature of non-dual mind can be possibly achieved.

       Here the yogı can use the attained undifferentiated mind within this arduous task. Then the tantric yogı continues by starting the internal techniques of ‘weaving’, melding or rather purifying and harmonizing the aspects of the bipolar breath with the two main winds in company with the bipolar inner components. This internal 'weaving' is in order to further re-focus the vista of the undifferentiated mind etc.

          Here the spinal centers of the finite body/mind are somewhat like a living radio or television receiver that in order to efficiently function on a cosmic level. Here the consciousness of the spinal centers has be 're-tuned' by the yoga methods of the breath etc., to reflect the inherent degrees of energy/resonance.

           By way of the efficient tantric yoga method relating to the yoga nerves, winds and the spinal centers etc., the process of further 're-tuning' the resultant undifferentiated spinal consciousness can perhaps eventually establish the finite body/mind within the microcosmic/macrocosmic 'great breath' or the cosmic life force. First, after having gained efficiency in yoga method, within the 'middle' nerve the yogı can spontaneous release the optimum life force. In Hindu tantra this is often known as the awakening and release of the kundalinı-shakti, the Coiled-up Energy/ Capability, or even the ‘secret fire’.

           Thereby clearly in terms of this systemic approach, the term ‘tantra’ as the ‘weaving’ of bipolar breath and winds etc., is more than appropriate. The progressive and intuitively manifested states of 'union' can be finally attained by full accomplishment in the v›yu-yoga, the Yoga of the Winds.

           These suble states can be intuitively made apparent by way of the techniques of inner emanation; by the placing of mantra-s within the body and the purification of the breath by the union, channeling and sealing of the prime winds within the meridian nerve etc. Then by so ‘heating’ and awakening the coiled-up energy/ capability, the ‘secret fire’, the nature of the 'great breath' of the life force can arise into a stage of total efficiency etc.

          In this way the metaphorical 'erotic' union of all these aspects of the bipolar 'actors' of the 'erotic drama in yoga' symbolizes the attained state of ‘completion’, of union, by accomplishment in the Yoga of the Winds etc. This can occur either within the Shaiva/Shakta hadi-mata system or the Mantrayana Process of Completion

          Thereby the erotic metaphor symbolizes the manner by which a mature yogı can awaken and be the purified form of the One in Possession of Womb/Source. This form already possess the melded, unified aspects and natures of the 'mother' and 'father'. Thereby by success in the method of the inner actors of the 'erotic drama of yoga' can certainly offer the prospect of an efficient, skillful practitioner becoming fully established within uncreated transcendental nature of the 'one' divine quantum field.

        Perhaps within other traditions similar allusions can be made by way of the union of the natures of the Gnostic archetypal figures of Adam and Eve located within the divine Eden or the formless nature of the divine quantum field. This bipolar approach is also certainly echoed in Chinese Taoism within their yoga-like system of harnessing chi, prana or the electromagnetic current or energy of the winds applied in order to unify the purified female and male principles of yin and yang etc.

           By way of the Yoga of the Winds the awakened coiled-up energy/capability is further harnessed to attain the aim of fully purifying and ‘sealing’ consciousness within the middle nerve/channel. These aims can be achieved, when with the 'secret fire' any blockages within the hearts of the spinal centers, situated centrally on the 'middle' nerve, are fully pierced. Once the yoga method to fully unblock 'middle' channel is successively applied, within this nerve the melding/ alliance of the ‘secret fire’ and the linga, the 'characteristic' resonance of the primeval mantra, can become fully active within the 'sealed'' consciousness of the 'middle' nerve by means of the 'great bliss'.

          As mentioned, a whole the basis of these advanced yoga techniques are known in in the Buddhist tantric tradition as the Process of Completion or in the Hindu Shakta/Kaula tradition as the hadi-mata process. But the method of 'sealing' consciousness within the 'middle' nerve whilst offering and enjoying the 'five' sense sacraments in order to 'burn off' with the mahasukha, the 'great bliss' any attachment to relative cause and effect, is known as the Process of Perfection. In the Shaiva/Shakta tradition this process is known as the kula-yoga.

        When consciousness is so 'sealed', the tantric yogı can then turn to the final process of the 'middle' tantric approach. This radical tantric process can 'burn away' all attachment to dualistic sensory elemental/emotional traits etc. The mode of this radical process is applied within the purified 'middle' nerve. Here the 'great bliss' arises when the five tantric sensory sacraments are enjoyed in company with harnessed Mother's 'secret fire' melded/unified with the resonance of the fully active Father's primeval mantra.

        Again this final radical tantric yoga process, involved in offering the five sensory sacraments, can only occur and be of altruistic use when the adept practitioner's consciousness is firmly 'sealed' within the 'middle' nerve. Here the nature of non-duality, directly realized by adept tantric yogı-s, is transcendent from the view of the sensory mind.

    But the 'natural nature' is ever impersonal and is omnipresent or macrocosmically/ microcosmically present throughout 'all material things' of the time-bound universe and beyond. Here from this realization the adept yogı actually becomes the emanated form of the 'chosen' deity possessing the non-dual nature of 'mother and father's' divine radiance/resonance.

       Under the pure ‘tantric’ 'middle' approach the essential unity of the divine characteristics are synonymous with the uncreated sahaja or ‘natural state’ of non-dual being. As mentioned this term is used both within the Buddhist Mantray›ya traditions and the Kaula Yoginı Kula traditions. This 'natural state' of consciousness is the divine nature of the formless 'one' radiance/resonance.

      Further this state of divine unity was characterized by the Great Adept Goraksa-natha as the realization 'divine unity within sensory diversity’. Here the microcosmic/macrocosmic nature can be conceived as the underlying divine nature of ‘the one and the many’. But still for the adept, accomplished in tantric emanation and yoga there is no further duality in terms of an individual soul nature or even the over-soul of the theistic deities of 'form', just the direct realization of 'that', the absolute non-duality nature, 'alone'.

           From the tantric point of view, the 'middle' approach completely typifies the altruistic outlook and vista of the Doctrine of [the microcosmic/ macrocosmic nature of] the Body. Under this outlook the finite body/mind is certainly considered and confirmed as possessing the consciousness potential of both the limitations of the  'unnatural' relative mind as well as to the infinite freedom of 'that', the 'natural' non-dual consciousness. When full purified the consciousness potential of the finite body/mind can in reality be a reflection of non-dual microcosmic/macrocosmic divine reality.


            (i.,) A brief review of the classic yoga system. 

         ‘As when jaundice is removed, the patient sees color as it is, so when the delusions of ignorance are destroyed the true nature... is manifested.’ 

                                                                                                                     shiva-samhita 1.42.


             According to the classic definition of the term ‘yogı’, the daily purpose of the ‘worthy’ consecrated orthodox and/or tantric yogi-s is to certainly perform devotion to the non-dual nature of the 'chosen' deity by way of processes of the four stages of yoga. These four stages comprise the asta-anga, the 'eight' limbs of the esoteric/esoteric system of yoga common to the various sectarian, yoga lineage traditions. The preliminary, exoteric portion comprises 'two' limbs and the esoteric portion of four stages, is divided into sat-anga-s, or 'six' limbs. Altogether the orthodox yoga system is known as the 'eight' limbs of yoga. 

             The yoga system of 'eight' limbs, as applied today by the various lineages of sectarian yogi-s, was historically formulated in the pre-10th., century AD., era by the Buddhist/Shaiva Great Adept Goraksanatha. But because of Buddhist and tantric views this tantric yoga system was revised by Goraksanatha's lineage from the 10th., century AD.  This system was historical set out in the yoga manuals of the purely Shaiva Natha tradition from the post-10th., century AD., that include the early Goraksanatha's sataka and his vacana-samgraha as well as the hatha-yoga-pradipika and the 15th., century AD., shiva-samhita etc., etc.

            From the influence of the Great Adept Goraksanatha etc., the comprehensive but more orthodox system set out in these manuals etc., was adapted and crystallized from the various and earlier tantric Buddhist and Shaiva emanation and yoga processes formulated during the latter part of the 1st., millennium AD.  The Natha yoga manuals follow the basic orthodox system as outlined in Patanjali’s yoga-darshana, Yoga Exposition. This fundamental yoga text was formulated from the processes, methods and techniques of the far earlier Indo-Dravidian tantric yoga tradition. The Indo-Dravidian tantric yoga tradition arose during the second half of the 2nd., millennium BC. This yoga tradition was adapted to the orthodox mores of Indo-Aryan ascetic mores from the 12th., century BC., and Patanjali composed and recorded his text during the 4th., century BC.

           As mentioned the Great Adept Goraksa's classic yoga system continues to exert a major doctrinal influence in the contemporary context and as such certainly offers a clear view of what defines a comprehensive applied exoteric/esoteric yoga approach. Here the preliminary exoteric stage is known as the karma-kanda, the preliminary Division of [modes to discipline and harness] Activities. The esoteric stage is known as the jnana-kanda, the Division of [intuited] Knowledge.

          In regard to the two limbs forming the preliminary Division of [modes to discipline and harness] Activities, 1.21-23., of the Natha yoga treatise, the Shiva-sa˙hita (S.S.,) states:

          ' The karma-kanda is twofold, consisting of injunctions and prohibitions. Prohibited acts when performed will certainly bring sin or demerit. From the performance of [the necessary] enjoined acts merit certainly accrues '.

          According to another influential Nath› yoga treatise, the hatha-yoga-pradipika (HYP.,) the exoteric limbs of the preliminary Division of [modes to discipline and harness] Activities are formed by the categories of yama, moral conduct, niyama, [foundation doctrinal] observances.

          In regard to these limbs of moral conduct and observances HYP., 1.17-18., states:

         ' The ten rules of moral conduct: [The stance of physical and mental] non-injury [towards all beings], truth, non-theft, celibacy, forgiveness, endurance, compassion, humility, sparing diet and cleanliness. '

         'The ten observances mentioned by those proficient in the knowledge of yoga are: [Physical and mental] asceticism, patience, belief in the causal deity, charity, devotion to the causal deity, listening and studying discourses on the principles of doctrine, shame, intellectual insight, the practice of [mild daily] austerity and fire sacrifice.'

           If 'worthy' yogi-s possesses the required inner 'sensibility', they can receive the graduated consecrations of the 'four' stages within the overall yoga method. These 'four' stages actually encompass the esoteric processes of the system of the sat-anga, ‘six’ limbs. These 'four' stages include those of mantra-yoga, Union with the resonance of Mantra then hatha-yoga, the Union of the Sun and Moon, followed by laya-yoga, Union by Absorbtion and finally raja-yoga or complete Union with the Regal (or divine, non-dual consciousness) etc.

           The first, 'mantra' stage entails that the 'worthy' initiated/consecrated yogi must already be proficient in the disciples of the 'two' exoteric 'limbs' of the overall yoga system. An initiated yogi must also be somewhat proficient in breath regulation etc. During the application of the basic first ‘mantra’ stage the yogi must mentally visualize the deity form of the ista-devata, the 'chosen' deity whilst correctly reciting and then emanating the resonance the sectarian mantra.

          In a more advanced context the yogi should also apply the mentioned stages of mantra recitation while applying the yoni-mudra, the Seal of the Source. Mantra recitation whilst applying this internal seal was especially required in some sectarian tantric yogi contexts, including the Kaula tradition, in order to perform 'mantra activities'. The yogı is devoted to the mantra stage with a view to eventually receive darshana, 'sight' of the 'chosen deity' and with deity's blessing become accomplished in emanating the resonance the 'chosen' deity's mantra and then externally wielding this mantra etc.

          According to the HYP., the second, the esoteric stage known as the Division of [intuited] Knowledge is comprised of the applied stages within the yoga system. The Division of Knowledge is comprised of sat-anga, 'six limbs'. These ‘six limbs’ are comprised of asana, posture, mudra, seal [of steadiness], pratyahara, abstraction [or emanation], pranayama, breath regulation, dhyana, concentration and samadhı, gathered stabilized meditative state.

         Posture’ is initially applied to make the body subtle and to strengthen the limbs for the eventuality of applying sitting postures for long periods. ‘Posture’ is further applied to especially straighten and strengthen the nadi-s, the channels or yoga nerves through which the activated and invigorated vayu-s, winds or degrees of electromagnetic energy, as well as later the coiled-up energy/capability will be channeled.

         'Abstraction’ can be in terms of concentrating on external and internal objects as well as in terms of visualization and emanation techniques applied to calm the emotionally tossed mind and related breath patterns in order harness the winds so as to be ready to apply breath regulation.

         'Breath regulation’ is applied to purify the nerves and subsequently to blend the winds according to the master’s instructions from and within particular principle nerves at the level of particular spinal centers.

          ‘Seals’ including bandha, ‘bonds’ are applied to fix, seal the blended winds within the principle nerve at the level of particular spinal centers. Once the winds are ‘sealed’ together with the bindu, the pent-up libido energy within the heart of a particular spinal center the coiled-up energy/capability can be awakened and channeled up the central nerve. Thereby the essential nature of degrees of undifferentiated consciousness inherent to the purified bhaga, womb ‘sources’ can be intuitively appreciated and known within the lotuses of the spinal centers.

         'Concentration’ refers to undistracted attention given to the degrees of undifferentiated consciousness within these lotuses.

          'Gathered stabilized meditative state’ refers to establishment within the state of prolonged attention given to these degrees of undifferentiated consciousness up to the advent of total establishment within the non-dual consciousness of the radiance/resonance of the quantum field.

          The utility of the esoteric trend comprised of the ‘six limbs’ is succinctly defined in SS., 1.33 that states:

           '...The spirit ought to be perceived [by such systemic means]....'

           A further tantric yoga, cosmic process basically separates orthodox yogi's from tantric yogı-s.  Tantric yogı-s apply a further and culminating process known as kula-yoga, Union with the Family. Here once the kundalini-shakti, the normally coiled-up Energy/ Capability of the optimum life force is aroused and channeled in and up the 'middle' nerve, the accomplished tantric yogi can apply the kula-yoga.

         By means of the kula-yoga the tantric yogı can attain the accomplishment of non-dual knowledge from correctly offering the 'five' sense sacraments of the 5M's. The 5M's, the 'five' sense-based sacraments, all beginning with Devanagri letter 'm', were offered during the gana-cakra-puja, the 'circle of initiates' rite. The 5M's used in this rite are parched grain, meat, fish, alcohol and the erotic union performed by the yogi and his consort, the yogini.

          As mentioned, within the cosmic process the offerings to the five senses were made while the adept tantric yogı is maintaining undifferentiated consciousness within the purified and activated 'middle' nerve. Within the purified 'middle' nerve the activated undifferentiated consciousness is formed there by the melding and harnessing Mother's kundalini, the released Energy/Capability and the Father's linga, the 'characteristic' or the resonance of the primeval mantra.

         Historically the ordered lineage yoga regime was applied to overcome all dualistic attachments of mind and to gradually attain the 'innate' non-dual knowledge, kevala, 'alone'. Such knowledge can only be realized by way of abhyasa, application and vairagya, non-attachment coupled together with deep compassion. An ordered lineage yoga regime was/is further necessary in order to uphold tantric yoga vows and to be successful in upholding the tantric observations in connection with the emanation and yoga processes of a sectarian yogı lineage.


     (j.) The pitha-s, 'seats' etc., of the 'five' regions of classical India during the 1st.,  millennium AD, as listed in two Buddhist Mantrayana tantra-s .


        ' ... the pitha-s are Jalandhara, Oddyana...'.

                                                                                                                                  H.T., 1.7.12.

      Historically, in accord with their vows, an ascetic orthodox or tantric yogı was only permitted to live in a particular location for a week or even less. This limitation was deemed necessary to keep yogı-s’ minds/attitude ‘fresh’, or spontaneous in observing their particular vows etc. This injunction was observed to stop yogı-s from becoming habituated and too familiar to any location or any source of daily alms or daily sustenance.

    However, if they so desired to be recognized, adept yogı-s could set up a hermitage within a particular location. In the very early Buddhist era Buddhist monks also applied this injunction of limited residence. The limitation on residing in one place was only suspended during the rainy season.

     With the exception of the rainy season yogı-s, monks and the other kinds of ascetics were able to follow a life of itinerancy by attending seasonal and regional mela-s, meetings/festivals held at the pitha-s, ‘seats’ etc., of the deities. In their observance of asceticism etc., or in their pursuit to fulfill tantric vows incumbent after tantric consecration, various kinds of sectarian ascetics and yogı-s often entered a life of perpetual pilgrimage between local and regional 'seats' or temples etc.

      Yogı-s were devoted, heroic and fiercely independent. Yogi-s etc., went alone on foot without possessions etc., and only relied on the 'chosen' deity as well as the 'fortune' of the road. In this manner the sadhu and yogı sectarian lineages are not like the well organized Christian monastic orders and unlike the well organized Buddhist monastic tradition.

      The conduct of yogi-s on perpetual pilgrimage was determined by incumbent vows that according to the circumstances and stature of the ascetic/yogı. According to their stature etc., these observations etc., included injunctions on not remaining in one location for more than just one, three or seven days etc. Yoga and tantric vows and observations were significantly governed by the need to attain inner degrees of mantra resonance synonymous with those of the various outer deity ‘seats’ etc.

    During the course of these pilgrimages, sectarian temple complexes and hermitages of renowned adept yogı-s offered itinerant yogı-s and ascetics of their lineage, refuge during the rainy season and during various fairs and festivals. However, except for the rainy season and some important fairs, as mentioned ascetics and yogı-s remained at one particular 'seat' only for the short duration generally allowed by the nature of their particular vow and by their status recognized within their particular lineage etc.

      That sectarian ascetics and yogı-s performed pilgrimage for large parts of the year undoubtedly led to the maintenance of a number of pilgrimage circuits. Over the millennia, due to devotional popularity as well as royal and householder patronage, the size and variety of pilgrimage/propitiation circuits advanced from simple circuits comprised of the 'seats' of local deities to circuits comprised of the important regional and then multi-regional ‘seats’ of female and male cosmic deities.

       Some of these regional and multi-regional ‘seats’ came into greater significance and importance. These included well known temple complexes, such as Kashi Viswanatha, Kamakhya-devı, the Deer Park in Varanasi, the Vajra ‘seat’, the temple complexes of the Valley of Nepala etc., representing aspects of major orthodox or heterodox sectarian deities whose propitiation had become central to popular devotion as well as central to state and political continuity.

       The exact era when particular ‘seats’ were established and came into prominence as well as the precise era when south Asia pilgrims commenced traversing even local or regional propitiation/pilgrimage circuits is generally unknown or lost in the mists of time. But in the context of a variety of indigenous tribal, orally transmitted sectarian traditions, since pre-history, particular local even regional deity ‘seats’ apparently gradually came into prominence within both tribal and settled areas.

      The prominence and sanctity of some ‘seats’ of the deities, especially tribal Mother Goddess sites, was initially due to their antiquity and due the auspicious nature of a deity 'seat'. Here these 'seats' were connected with tribal puberty and fertility rites as well as harvest rites, post-hunting rites or to sacrifices made to warrior totems etc.

      Later, in other contexts, recorded myths were connected with the locations or circuits of particular tribal sites already used for the worship of aspects the Mother Goddess etc. Here within the famous Hindu myth of Shiva's consort Sati, her death and the dismemberment of her body has created a circuit of ‘seats’ dedicated to Her aspects. Within this myth the location of the 'seats' of the various aspects of the Goddess were created where ever the severed parts of Satı’s body fell to the earth.

       Further within regional oral legends the auspicious nature of the particular sites of the 'seats' was recognized and arose after seminal ascetics or yogı-s had successfully performed yoga and austerities there or had gained a vision of the deity as well as attained prolonged stability in prolong meditation at these sites.

     At the Kumbha Mela held in Pray›gr›j ascetic yogı-s and devotees etc., come to worship at the point where the Ganges and Jumuna rivers meet the hidden river, the Saraswati. This is known as the triveni, the Triple Confluence. The Triple Confluence is bound up with the basic symbolism relating to the Shaiva and Vaisnava traditions of 'eight-limbed' yoga.

     Within the context of the ritual bathing rites, that are the center-piece for ritual performance at these gatherings, the term kumbha, ‘water pot’ is an apt title for this kind of fair by referring to the water pot used in daily and ritual ablutions. Hence the pejorative characterization proposed by the Buddhist Tradition for the popular Brahminical tradition as being the tırthika-dharma, or a simplistic ‘bathing doctrine’ where sins are washed away just by a sanctified dip etc.

      However within the yoga system the term kumbha is also metaphorically related to the shape of the body when the breath is gathered and retained by the principle mode of breath regulation, kumbhaka-pr›˚ayama, Pot Breath Regulation. Further the emptiness of an unfilled ‘water pot’ can symbolize the nature of undifferentiated mind attained by those yogı-s accomplished in breath regulation in conjunction with the yoga bandha-s, Bonds and mudr›-s, Seals.

       During the 7th., century AD., the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Hiuen-Tsang made a pilgrimage  to India. He travelled through the eastern Middle Country visiting the great Buddhist Monastery/University of Nalanda as well as the Vajrasana, where the Buddha attained enlightenment etc. In his account of his visit to Prayagraj in the company of the Emperor Harsha Vadana, Hiuen-Tsang mentions that ‘to the east of the capital between the confluence of the rivers is pleasant and upland [the bluff now known as Joshi]’.

      As can still be seen today, Hiuen Tsiang describes the ‘whole [area of the banks beside the Ganges and Jumuna Rivers as bring] covered with a fine sand’. Hiuen Tsiang also records that a part of this area beside the Ganges and Jumuna Rivers was a ‘great charity enclosure’. The ‘great charity enclosure’ area was so named on account of the custom of kings of that region to distribute the wealth accumulated over the past years to charity.

      According to Hiuen Tsiang ‘to the east of the enclosure of charity at the confluence of the two rivers every day there are many hundreds of men who bathe themselves and [then] die’. Here he indicates that after fasting for seven days and following the still popular notion that bathing in the confluence of these rivers absolves the pilgrim from all sin some the pilgrims did not simply depart but preferred to die ‘pure’. Such pilgrims drown themselves after throwing themselves into the river with a heavy stone slung on a rope placed around their neck.

     Similarly within hagiography of the Buddhist/Hindu Great Adept Viru-pa recounts how this adept master of tantric yoga subdued the blood-thirsty dakinı of an unreformed ancient mother goddess ‘seat’ where pilgrims threw themselves on a huge, sharpened trident set on the bathing steps.


       The 1st., millennium AD., was historically the classic era of Indian religious and social culture. During this era the various historic lineages of yoga and tantra were founded by realized, ascetic siddha-s, Adepts or by maha-siddha-s, Great Adepts. These adepts of emanation and yoga had realized the innate knowledge of non-duality, free of all dualistic, worldly attachments, sorrow and fear.

      But this was an era where the majority of the inhabitants the 'five' regions of India, composed of the lower castes, tribals etc., were generally illiterate and tied down by caste occupations and family professions. Barring the elite ruling classes, the inhabitants of classical India were living in a more or less medieval or even in a pre-medieval situation. All Indian kingdoms and all castes were generally ruled by autocratic despots.

       When nightfall fell, ordinary people lived in the dark of night. Apart from a few oil lamps, used for light or for devotion purposes, by eight o'clock or earlier most people were already in bed so as to start their daily work from the dawn hours.

     Here the classic and historic periods of Indian civilization obviously lacked modern scientific knowledge and was full of superstition, relative ignorance, sorrow and fear. Obviously India of this era lacked a modern system of education, modern doctors and health care as well as the comforts of electricity, pumped water, good roads as well as lacked transportation in the form of railways, cars and jet liners etc.

       Historically during the classic era the life for the majority was very hard. What could induced pilgrims and ascetics to take up the further hardships involved in taking a dangerous pilgrimage?


       During the classical and medieval eras the life of an itinerant, ascetic orthodox or tantric yogi was arduous, exacting and even a dangerous life task. As mentioned earlier those who are attached etc., to the the mores of the sense/social world could not really enter and take up the chosen life-style of an ascetic orthodox yogi or a ascetic/householder tantric yogı etc. Under the historic yogı lineage view the fearful and those who are deeply attached to dualistic mores of the sense/social world are always deemed as ‘unworthy’ and are barred by adepts from entry and consecration within the overall yogi lineage.

       Ascetics pilgrims were inwardly driven to take pilgrimages from their intense devotion offered to the 'chosen' deity. Orthodox and tantric ascetics and householder devotees of emanation and yoga were driven on by the wish to seek out adept lineage holding yogı masters or to fulfill particular ascetic vows and by the wish to apply the modes of yoga, mantra recitation etc., within the location of the special 'seats' of their 'chosen' deity.

       Householders made local and regional pilgrimages to honor and give comfort their ancestors, to seek merit as well as by being driven by guilt and the desire for purification from past sins. Householders also made pilgrimages by being driven for the desire to have sons, wealth etc. While performing these pilgrimages both household pilgrims and ascetic vow holders attempted to overcome all inner attachments, obstacles, fears and the real difficulties encountered on the way.

       During the classical and historic eras even up to the quite recent British era travel was certainly very difficult, often entailing travel over poor roads or even traveling outside of settled rural areas within essentially little modified or untamed natural jungle surroundings etc.

      In order to attempt to generally appreciate these difficulties imagine being on foot on unpaved roads in jungles infested with wild beasts, snakes as well as fever or the forest home of wild indigenous tribes etc. Imagine traversing high, snow covered, narrow mountain passes or crossing rivers lacking bridges, whose fords during the non-monsoon portions of the year were sometimes the haunts of muggar-s, huge man-eating crocodiles.

     Or at best imagine enduring bumpy cart rides on rutted or muddy tracks without any modern hotels or without modern toilet or refreshment facilities. Also imagine having encounters with cruel robbers or arrogant king’s men as well as opportunistic tax collectors and dishonest innkeepers, merchants as well as rough or loose women and even dissolute, rogue criminal yogı-s etc.

      But perhaps also imagine pilgrimages spiced with lucky chance encounters with experienced travelers or the kindness of honest fellow devotees, honest inn-keepers as well as compassionate ascetics and monks. Further consider the potential of gaining prajna, ‘insight’ and intuitive experience from spontaneous encounters with the ‘presence’ of accomplished yogı-s and yoginı-s as well as being devoted enough to being open to the ‘resonance’ of aspects of the 'chosen' deity located at particular deity ‘seats’ etc.

     From the author’s own experience, certainly even today, such ‘insight’ can be afforded within the resonating ‘seats’ of the deities. During visits to various auspicious 'seats' the author has had chance encounters with apparently frail old ascetics or seemingly unsavory yogı-s who were actually power houses of devotion and inner energy/capability. The chance encounters, under what initially appeared to be unlikely circumstances triggered off unexpected inner ‘insight’.

       By virtue of the ‘presence’ of the deity, lauded in local oral traditions by the feats of accomplishment of adept yogı-s etc., some local and then regional seats certainly became magnets for ascetic and householder pilgrims and thereby came into greater prominence than other seats as destinations for pilgrimage. The resonating 'seed' mantra of the deity is therefore understood to have permeated the location/site of the 'seat'. By way of the local oral tradition the site then became attractive for devotees and pilgrims who sought purification from sin, favors of the deity, such as male offspring or good health etc.

      Therefore at the 'seats' ascetics and householder pilgrims feel the reflection of the subtle energy/image of the resonating 'seed' mantra of their ancient ‘chosen’ female or male deity. For ascetics, yogı-s the utility of the subtle resonance permeating the ‘seat’ was deemed most suitable for them to seek to attain the undifferentiated inner resonance. Here ascetics etc., seek to successfully fulfill their vows; to attain accomplishment in mantra recitation and allied mantra activities as well as for the successful application of yoga etc.


      During the early classical tantric era, spanning the first half of the first millennium AD., accomplished adept yogı-s often sought to perform their beneficial duties to humanity in obscurity and generally continued to be life-long itinerants who traversed regional as well as multi-regional pilgrimage/ propitiation circuits. But from the impetus generated by these seminal adept yogı-s, often initially hailing from the hill kingdoms of the northwestern region, the tantric yoga 'circles' they founded led to the popularity of tantric deity cycles and to the popularity of the 'seats' of the tantric deities.

      The ‘seats’ of the deities etc., were/are studded on the ancient, regional pilgrimage/propitiation circuits. Historically contact between yogı-s from a variety of sects, often occurred at these the ’seats’ etc., of the deities. During the middle of the 1st., millennium AD., the pilgrimage/propitiation circuits of the tantric deities etc., went beyond a regional devotional relevance and were expanded into multi-regional circuits that spanned and linked the important ‘seats’ of the aspects of the bipolar female and male cosmic deities.

       These multi-regional circuits were located within the ‘five’ regions of classical India. Over time this whole impetus led to the formation and fame of Saiva and Shaiva/Shakta tantric yogı lineage streams as well as the Buddhist tantric yogi lineage streams. The gradual spread and fame of the tantric yogı lineage streams generally occurred as a product of the psychic powers and inner accomplishments manifested by generations of Shaiva and Shaiva/Shakta and Buddhist tantric yogı-s. 

        By these means, the various sectarian tantric lineages founded by accomplished, adept yogı-s were finally spread throughout all the 'five' regions of classical India by the 6th., or 7th., century AD. The popularity of the various tantric yoga lineages; the related deity cycles and their 'seats' was spread by the fame of generations of itinerant adept yogı-s traveling on regional as well as multi-regional India pilgrimage circuits. With the popular spread of sectarian tantricism to all the 'five' regions of classical India in turn this led to the composition of many tantric texts read by literate initiated upper caste devotees.

      By that time even Brahmins pundits were attracted to the various dual and non-dual doctrines etc., of the sectarian tantric lineages and in their texts formulated precise systems of applied emanation and yoga together with appropriate ritual etc. The various sectarian tantric texts written by Brahmin pundits and others discuss mantra-s, mantra powers and tantric ritual offered to tantric deities as well as the processes of emanation and yoga aimed at non-duality. In part these Brahmins pundits composed tantric texts in order to reconcile and even re-integrate the aims of tantricism within the aims of the Brahminical social/religious mainstream etc.

       Thereby with the spread of these sectarian tantric lineages to the 'five' regions of classical India as well by the composition of tantric treatises by Brahmins acted as a means of the re-engagement of unorthodox or tantric adepts, often from the low caste or indigenous tribal origins, who held tantric yogı lineages, with their orthodox upper caste counterparts. From this process and by regal patronage offered throughout this period, the Shaiva and the Shaiva/Sh›kta yoga lineages were gradually and somewhat re-incorporated within the caste mores and milieu of the mainstream Brahminical religion.

      During the formative tantric era ending in the 6th., century AD., a broad process in the emergence of the radical tantric methods of Vajrayana/ Mantrayana led for a while to the modification of Buddhist doctrine towards a more yogi situation rather than normal and purely monastic situation. The formulation of doctrine within the Buddhist tantric yogı situation led to the evolution of a radical 'applied' cosmic process involving the 'five sense sacraments'.

     As a consequence of the Process of Perfection the development of the tantric Buddhist processes of emanation and yoga were not suited to the vows and daily disciplines of monks. But later the vista of the tantric Buddhist yogı lineages were somewhat toned down and re-incorporated or rather integrated within the overall Buddhist tradition via the doctrinal influence of the great monastery/universities.

      In this way the later development of the tantric Buddhist 'Seven Lineages' outside of the northwestern region, gradually became completely separate from the evolution of the later Shaiva and Shaiva/Shakta tantric lineages. This total separation of the sectarian tantric yogi lineages of the northwest region was completed with the founding of the great Buddhist monastery/universities.

     The Nalanda monastery/university of Madagha, was initially founded during the 7th.,  century AD., and the other monastery/ universities of the eastern region were founded during the 8th.,  andd 9th.,  centuries AD. Here the doctrines of the Buddhist tantric lineages were again fully sieved within the doctrinal view of the Mahayana monastic sects.

        During the classic tantric era of the 1st., millennium AD., the ‘seats’ of the deities and those temples possessing Shiva and Shiva/Shaktı images, Yoginı Circles etc., as well as unfrequented cremation grounds certainly offered suitable havens for the application of tantric vows and ritual including the gana-cakra, the 'circle of initiates' and the offering of the 5M's etc. Unfrequented cremation grounds were unencumbered by the curiosity and gross diversions of the social world.

      The Buddhist Mantrayana texts offer full lists of the suitable 'seats' etc. The samvarodaya-tantra (SO.T.,) gives a full list of the 'meeting places' where the Buddhist yogı-s and yoginı-s could gather to hold rites. SO.T.9.13., states that the ‘meeting places’ etc., are comprised of:

      'Pitha, seat [of the deity], upapitha, [subordinate or] supplementary seat [of the deity], ksetra, field, upaksetra, supplementary field, candoha, chanting site, upacandoha, supplementary chanting site, melapaka, meeting place, upamelapaka, supplementary meeting place, shmashana, cremation ground, [and] upashmashana, supplementary cremation ground...'.

     The Mantrayaya root text the H.T., lists an additional pair of suitable ‘meeting places’, the pilava and upapilava. The obscurity of the word pılava does not allow a simple or exact translation of this descriptive term. However, H.T.1.7.12-18 defines the term as a site ' the edge of a village and a city...'. This possibly refers to some lonely shrine or a piece of waste ground or even perhaps to a deserted building or set of deserted buildings etc., situated at such a location.

      As mentioned such sites were clearly required because of vows of secrecy as well as additionally because of the radical, socially shocking nature to the orthodox tradition of the mix caste tantric rites involving the 5M's and the ‘erotic’ yoga of the the Process of Perfection or the Kula Yoga. Of necessity ash covered Shiva/Shakta and Buddhist yogı-s and yoginı-s had to perform their rites and erotic modes of practice in secret and in solitude.

    In order to maintain vows of secrecy and to guard against interruption by unwelcome or unconsecrated individuals the often radical tantric rites and modes of practice were performed at night especially within the environs of such isolated or lonely locations. By being in such lonely or socially shunned places the various kinds of ‘meeting places’ etc., met the necessary criteria of isolation and were considered as suitable places to apply various tantric rites and modes of the application of the vow.

     Thereby during the classic tantric era tantric yogı-s had suitable locations and the necessary milieu to uphold and apply in ‘secret’ their tantric vows. Here yogı-s and yoginı-s could apply themselves to their incumbent tasks and to radical rites derived from tantric consecration and the receipt of instructions, deity mantra-s etc. These rites included the rites of abhiseka, Consecration, the gana-cakra-puja, the rite of the Circle of Initiates as well as the radical rituals involved in offering the sense sacraments of the 5M's, also performed with yoginı-s.

      Also during the rainy season these particular locations were suitable for a more prolonged retreats and the performance of the stages within the tantric processes of emanation and yoga as well as for particular modes of mantra recitation and allied mantra activities by way of tantric fire sacrifices etc., associated with the propitiation of the ‘chosen’ tantric deity. However it is not entirely clear if yogı-s and yoginı-s were expected to visit all the principle 'seats' or ‘meeting places’ on these circuits or just simply visit the principle 'seat' etc., within their particular region.

     The existence and utility of ‘supplementary seats’ etc., could suggest that this was not necessary. However in some hagiographies of tantric yogı-s it is apparent that yogı-s had to make difficult pilgrimages to far off ‘seats’ etc., either to meet adept lineage holders or to propitiate a particular aspect of their 'chosen' tantric deity.


      The Shaiva/Shakta Kula/Kaula lext, the KAT., lists four principle ‘seats’ of the deities that are suitable for pilgrimage and application of rites etc. The four principal seats listed in this important treatise of the Shaiva/Shakta, Kula/Kaula tradition exactly correspond to the principal ‘seats’ listed in the H.T. Thereby this common listing of principle ‘seats’ could confirm a degree of mutual lineage affiliation/origin as well as a concurrent, mutual use of these sites situated on ancient yogı propitiation/pilgrimage circuits during the 1st., millennium AD.

      According to KAT., 5.25., these principal ‘seats’ of the deities are: '...Uddiyana-pitha...kamarupa-pitha ...jalandhara-pitha ...purnagiri-pitha ...'.

    These principle tantric ‘seats’ are located in the northwestern, northeastern, northern and southern regions of classical India. In a slightly different order the H.T.,1.7.12-18 similarly lists these four principal ‘seats’ as prime locations suited for the application of tantric vows and the system of this Buddhist ‘wisdom’ tantric deity cycle. The far flung locations of these four principal ‘seats’ created a very wide ranging tantric propitiation/pilgrimage circuit that was apparently applicable to the lineage of the H.T., as well as for the Kula/Kaula lineage of the KAT.

      As the H.T., was already composed during the 8th., century AD., the locations of these 'seats' offer a potentially clear indication of the geographical range of the various tantric deity cycles by this date as well as the potential diffusion of the northwestern Shaiva/Shakta and Buddhist tantric yogı lineages by this time.

       The two Mantrayana texts previously mentioned give full lists of the locations of the yogı lineage's deity ‘seats’ and ‘supplementary seats’ etc.

       Here H.T.,1.7.12-18., states: ' [The disciple] Vajragarbha asked: "O Bhagav›n, which are the pitha, the Seats [of the deities] and the other meeting places? "

       Bhagav›n replied: " The Seats are Jalandhara, Oddiyana, Purnagiri and Kamarupa.

       " The [subordinate or] Supplementary Seats are Malava, Sindu and Nagara.

       “ The Fields are Munmuni, Karunyapatakam, Devıkota, Karmarapatakam.

       “ The Supplementary Fields are Kulata, Arbuda, God›varı and Himadri.

       “ The Chanting Sites are Harikelam....located in the middle of of the salty ocean, Lampaka, Kancika, and Saurastra.

      “ The Supplementary Chanting Sites are Kalinga, the Golden Island and Koncana.

      " The Pılava is at the edge of a village and a city. The cities of Caritra, Koshala, Kum› the Vindhdya Hills...are [or possess] pılava-s....

       “ The Cremation Grounds are the meeting place of hungry [is] the seashore. A garden or the edge of a pond are known as Supplementary Cremation Grounds."

       Similarly the SO.T., also lists the significant meeting places situated upon the propitiation/pilgrimage circuit of the Samvara cycle. Some of the locations for the ‘seats’ etc., also correspond to those found in the H.T.

       In respect to the Seats etc., of the Sa˙vara cycle, SO.T., 9.14-19 states:

     ' Pur˚agiri is declared to be a Seat [of the deity] so [also] Jalandhara is [declared to be] a Seat. Similarly Oddiyana is a Seat and likewise Arbuda is a Seat.

  ‘God›varı is a Supplementary Seat and likewise R›meshvari is [the other] Supplementary Seat [of this] pair. Devıkota and Malava are [also] named as Supplementary Seats.

   ‘ K›marupa and the country named Odra are [paired as] Fields. Trishakuni is a Supplementary Field, Koshala is also a Supplementary Field.

   ' Both Kalinga and Lampaka are Chanting Sites and Kanci is a Supplementary Chanting Site and especially Him›laya [is considered a Supplementary Chanting Site].

      ‘ Pret›dhiv›rsini is a Meeting Place and Grhadevat› also.

   ‘The pairing of Supplementary Meeting Places are [located] in Saurastra and Svarnadvıpa.

      ‘ P›˛iliputra is a Cremation Ground and Sindu too [is also a Cremation Ground].

     ‘ The locations of Maru and Kulata are said to be Supplementary Cremation Grounds.'

         Because the ‘seats’ etc., were apparently the premier initial sites for the application of tantric practices among the ‘meeting places’ there is also a potential additional significance that can be applied to the initial 'seats' listed by the H.T., and the SO.T.

        The initial position of Jalandhara and Purnagiri in the listings of meeting places within these two treatises perhaps infers that the deity cycle of Hevajra initially arose into prominence and was propagated from the northwestern region of classical India. Whereas by initially listing Purnagiri in the south perhaps the deity cycle of Samvara possibly first rose into prominence in the southern region.

       Also by inferring that the Samvara cycle was popular in south India the Buddhist lineage holders of this deity cycle could be free of any associations with the northwestern Shaiva/Shakta yogı lineages. However within the SO.T., the inclusion of two locations within the northwestern region, Jalandhara and Oddiy›na also suggest the significance and importance of this overall region within the origins and the initial founding /propagation of this important deity cycle within the Mantrayana tradition.

       Certainly as suggested earlier many of the locations of particular yogi meeting places situated upon the propitiation/pilgrimage circuits were also sacred to and frequented by yogı-s from the Shaiva/Shakta and Buddhist tantric yoga traditions. From references within Shaiva/Shakta as well as Buddhist tantric treatises many of these 'seats' and 'meeting places' are only identified by their original vernacular or Sanskrit names.

        But many of these vernacular or Sanskrit names were changed over the centuries and do not appear today. But fortunately the locations of these classical named places are identified in the modern historical works by Indian scholars such as D.C. Sircar, S.B. Dasgupta etc. However, in some instances, even after consulting these various sources the locations of some of the places, districts or kingdoms listed in the tantric texts above still remain uncertain or totally unknown.

       The initial seat mentioned in the H.T., listing is Jalandhara. J›landhara is considered to correspond to the modern city of Jalundar situated in northwestern India in the eastern part of Indian Punjab. The mountain location of the initial 'seat' mentioned in the SO.T., Purnagiri, also known as Pollagiri and Pulliramalayam in the YM., has not been exactly located. But this location is generally considered to be in the southeastern part of India possibly in the modern Indian states of Andra Pradesh or Tamil Nadu.

        Of the other seats etc., mentioned in the H.T., Oddiyana is thought to correspond to the modern Swat Valley, situated in the northwestern part of Pakistani Punjab. Purnagiri is situated in the extreme southeastern region possibly in Tamil Nadu and Kamarupa is associated with the temple site of Kamakhya-devı on the Blue Hill overlooking the Brahmaputra River located near the modern city of Gauhati in northeastern state of Assam.

        Malava refers in general to the ancient kingdom of the same name and to the modern district of Rajastan in the central western region and Sindu to Sind province in modern southeastern Pakistan. Within the YM., Nagara is said to refer to the ancient city of Pataliputra, the modern city of Patna, the modern capital of the state of Bihar.

        Devikota is generally associated with the Goddess temple site in modern Dinajpur district of Bengal. Arbuda certainly refers to Mount Abu situated on the border of eastern Rajastan and western Uttar Pradesh. Godıvari refers to the many temple and pilgrimage sites situated on the Godivari river in the north/central Deccan of Madhya Pradesh.

       Kancika refers to the temple site at Conjeeveram in the Chingleput district of Madras in the southeastern region. Saurasta refers to the coastal region of southern Gujerat and northern Maharastra.

       Kalinga refers to the Puri-Ganjam coastal region of Orissa State on the eastern shores of the Andaman Sea. The suvarnadvipa ‘Golden Island’ does not refer to a location within a region of classical India. This term either refers to the islands of Java and Sumatra or as the suvarnabhumı, ‘Golden Land’ to the ancient kingdom of Kedah that was located to south of the Isthmus of Kra in modern southern Thailand and northern Malaysia.

      Koshala refers to the ancient kingdom situated in the eastern part of modern Uttar Pradesh in the northern region and Kumarapura is indicated in the H.T., to be situated ' in the Vindhya Hills' in south-western Uttar Pradesh. The location of the city of C›ritra is unknown.


        Among the meeting places listed in the SO.T., the principle 'seats' of Pur˚agiri, Jalandhara, Oddiyana and Arbuda have already been identified. Rameshvari probably refers to the temple situated in the modern city of Rameshvaram located on southeastern tip of Tamil Nadu where the Palk Straight divides India from Shrı Lanka. Odra probably refers to the northern coastal region within the modern Indian State of Orissa and Kalinga to the coastal region of southern Orissa and northern Andra Pradesh. Koshala and Kanci have already been identified.

        Himalaya possibly refers to Kashmir or to the Nepala valley, the modern Kathmandu Valley in the modern Kingdom of Nepal or even to one of the many Mother Goddess shrines and temples located in the Kangra Valley within the modern state of Himachal Pradesh etc. Pataliputra, Saur›stra, Sindu and ‘Golden Island’ have already been identified.

        From the identified locations of many of the meeting places listed in the quotations from the H.T., and the SO.T., the propitiation/pilgrimage circuits traversed by Buddhist tantric yogi-s and yogini-s applying the cycles of Hevajra and Samvara etc., can be appreciated as having a very wide geographical range.

         Thereby the tantric deity cycles were apparently diffused throughout the ‘five’ regions by the 9th., century AD. However the tantric deity cycles were only really applied within limited circles of ascetic and householder tantric yogi-s and yogini-s and in general did not form part of a popular devotional approach.

         Further the instance within both listings of the 'Golden Island' suggests the spread of these ‘wisdom’ deity cycles as well as Shaiva/Shakta tantric cycles outside of the Indian sub-continent proper. This certainly is known and confirmed from Cambodian Khmer Shaiva temples, their epigraphic records as well from the existence of Hindu and Buddhist tantra-s, treatises/systems, written in the old Javanese script.

         Clearly 'golden island' either refers to the islands of Sumatra and Java in modern Indonesia or to the Kingdom of Kedah that was located south of the Isthmus of Kra. Both of these regions fell into the sphere of influence of the pre-11th., century AD., Shailendra kingdom of Shrıvijåya.

        The capital of the Shailendra Empire was Vij›yanagara, thought to correspond to the modern Indonesian port of Palembang in Sumatra. The Shailendra or Lord of the Mountain dynasty built the temple/ mountain of Borumborador from the profits of monopoly, entrepot trading between India and China.

        The Kingdom of Shrivij›ya was also a very important later center for the study of Mah›y›na Buddhism. The 11th., century adept Bengali monk Atisha studied there in order to gain a complete mastery over all aspects of the Mah›y›na doctrines then unavailable in monastery/ universities of eastern India. Undoubtedly both the Mah›y›na and the Mantrayana spread into Shrıvij›ya via trading links that existed with eastern and southern India as well as with southern modern Thailand and Malaysia since the latter half of the 1st., millennium AD.


Copyrighted by George W. Farrow

About the Author






      The author was raised in the UK., had a loving family and thanks to the efforts of my parents I received a good education. Also allied with these facts I was also born and brought up in the freest era of human social history etc. But thanks to the rise of the fascist US., Empire, occurring after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989, that unique era is now well and truly finished. 

         Apart from the normal interests of youth etc., I was interested in literature, physics   , history, jazz, art as well as travel and even eastern philosophy etc. Since the '60’s I had the opportunity to travel in North Africa, the Middle East as well as South and Southeast Asia. I first traveled overland to India in '70 and made further visits there etc., in order to explore South Asian ‘applied’ yoga doctrines and the various sectarian systems of emanation and yoga.

    I went to India in order to make further sense of my personal explorations of consciousness aimed towards the 'now moment' and the innate 'one' nature. Then and still today, I was really only interested in the applied esoteric and cosmic yoga doctrines of the South Asian masters of emanation and yoga rather than in the popular, theistic devotional doctrines of the Hindu religion or any other theistic religion. I sought and still seek direct, intuitive experience of the non-dual 'divine birthright' inherent to humanity rather than 'belief' and 'faith' in a personified deity or the doctrinal concepts, the myths etc., of popular theistic religion.

      While still living in Europe I sought and received some yoga techniques. After receiving these efficient yoga techniques I was very quickly forced to distance myself and detach myself from the idiotic and fascist personality cult surrounding the Indian 'master' of this avenue for inner application.

      Even so my explorations of consciousness became more directed and more efficient from receiving and appying thsee techniques. This efficiency came from concentrating upon the inner bipolar nature of the breath together with the inner yoga components such as the 'winds', the 'nerves' and the spinal 'centers' etc.

     Since then, on good, auspicious days, from concentrated practice with these and other yoga techniques, mantra-s etc., my finite body/mind could reach surprising (for me!) levels of internal energy. Once attaining an 'overdrive' of this internal energy or the energy of the life force, a true dawning of natural, undifferentiated consciousness occurred. For me the advent of undifferentiated consciousness was/is marked by degrees of bliss and by love and compassion felt for all beings etc.

    But even so, from one day to the next, my ongoing inner quest is not stabilized or complete. I am in a position similar to the words drawn from an old Grateful Dead song: '...sometimes the light is shining on me but other times I can hardly see...'.

    I came to see that my habits of mind or rather my personal process of past and present cause and effect, could aid me or bar me from reaching the stabilized aims of my personal inner quest. So I decided to first travel to India and then later to eventually stay in South Asia etc., to further my studies of Indian yoga philosophy and further my inner explorations under the direction of the adept masters, both Hindu and Buddhist, who I was very fortune to meet there.

     So I have lived in South and Southeast Asia for more than forty years and have been quite busy with my studies, my translations projects and meditations.

     Despite having a stroke four years ago, leading to a difficult period involving the rehabilitation of my body and the recovery of my mind, to this day I still continue with the my life long quest for the 'one' consciousness, the 'now moment'. I still follow an efficient atheistic regime of emanation, yoga and meditation etc.

All hail to the kundalini-shakti, the normally coiled-up Energy/Capability of the optimum life force, the 'secret fire' of the cosmic Mother!


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